American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(9), 375-379
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-9-5
Open AccessArticle

Fairclough’s Concepts of Language Policy and Language Planning: A Comparative Study between Malaysia and Cambodia

Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi1, , Nurul Wahida Samsuddin1 and Mairas Abd Rahman1

1Sultan Zainal Abidin University, Malaysia

Pub. Date: November 11, 2013

Cite this paper:
Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi, Nurul Wahida Samsuddin and Mairas Abd Rahman. Fairclough’s Concepts of Language Policy and Language Planning: A Comparative Study between Malaysia and Cambodia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(9):375-379. doi: 10.12691/education-1-9-5


This paper is a comparative study of two important journals which reflect the challenges faced by two developing countries: Malaysia and Cambodia. The objectives of this study are to investigate the problems, planning and challenges faced by both countries and also to justify the language policy and planning of both countries using Fairclough’s concepts in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The findings show that language policy and language planning in Malaysia and Cambodia are majorly influenced by the political development at both of the countries themselves. Obviously, the national language of Bahasa Malaysia and Khmer has experienced development and standardization surrounded with the influence of second language, that is English.

Critical Discourse Analysis Language Policy language planning Fairclough

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 1


[1]  Thong, T. (n.d.). Language Planning and Language Policy of Cambodia. Retrieved April 05, 2013, from
[2]  Platt, J. T. (n.d.). Some Aspects of Language Planning in Malaysia. Retrieved April 05, 2013, from
[3]  Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: the critical study of language. England: Pearson Education Limited.
[4]  Bourdieu, P. (2003). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[5]  Cameron, D. (2005). Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage Publications.
[6]  Van Dijk, T. (2005). Critical Discourse Analysis. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, D & H. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 352-371). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
[7]  Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power. Second edition. Malaysia: Longman.
[8]  Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse. Textual analysis for social research. London and New York: Routledge.
[9]  Asmah, Haji Omar (1983).The Role of English in Malaysia in the Context of National Language Planning.Varieties of English in Southeast Asia.Ed. R.B. Ross. Singapore: Singapore UP/SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
[10]  Bialystock, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development. Language, literacy, and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[11]  Capdevila, I. (2011). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical study of language by Norman Fairclough. Retrieved April 06, 2013, from