American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(6), 606-611
DOI: 10.12691/education-5-6-2
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of a Visual Metaphor of Suicide Risk Factors: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial in Psychology Students

M Alyami1, , H Alyami2, F Sundram3 and B A Haarhoff4

1School of Psychology, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

2Consult Liaison Psychiatry, Starship Hospital, Auckland District Health Board, New Zealand and South Auckland Clinical Campus, The University of Auckland, New Zealand

3Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

4Senior lecturer and Registered Clinical Psychologist, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

Pub. Date: June 14, 2017

Cite this paper:
M Alyami, H Alyami, F Sundram and B A Haarhoff. Evaluation of a Visual Metaphor of Suicide Risk Factors: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial in Psychology Students. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(6):606-611. doi: 10.12691/education-5-6-2

Abstract

Background: Although comprehensive knowledge of suicide risk assessment is fundamental, training programs for such an essential skill often include passive and didactic methods that may not facilitate recall. Objectives: To examine the efficacy of a recently published novel visual metaphor (VM) for teaching suicide risk factors as an adjunct to traditional teaching methods in a group of novice learners. Methods: A pilot non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. 22 first-year undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to either a control group, where they received traditional teaching (TT) or an intervention group, where they received traditional teaching and the visual metaphor (TT+VM). Participants then completed post-learning assessment including immediate free recall of suicide risk factors and knowledge application based on a clinical vignette. Cognitive load and participants’ satisfaction were also assessed. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyse the data. Results: The TT+VM group demonstrated significantly better immediate free recall of suicide risk factors (mean= 14.56, SD= 3.2, p=.026), and superior application in the clinical vignette (mean= 14.33, SD= 1.00, p= .036). Furthermore, the TT+VM group also reported significantly less cognitive loading while learning suicide risk factors (mean= 3.44, SD= .88, p=.001) and significantly higher satisfaction levels (mean= 26.44, SD= 3.6, p=.001). The differences between the two groups on these domains ranged between medium and large effect sizes. Conclusions: Preliminary findings show that the use of TT+VM enhanced the learning of suicide risk factors. The VM could be a useful learning tool for novice learners but future large-scale studies are warranted to replicate this positive preliminary effect.

Keywords:
visual metaphor suicide risk factors learning cognitive load theory

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Cramer RJ, Johnson SM, McLaughlin J, Rausch EM, Conroy MA. Suicide risk assessment training for psychology doctoral programs: Core competencies and a framework for training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology. 2013 Feb; 7(1): 1-11.
 
[2]  Sudak D, Roy A, Sudak H, Lipschitz A, Maltsberger J, Hendin H. Deficiencies in suicide training in primary care specialties: A survey of training directors. Academic Psychiatry. 2007; 31(5): 345-349.
 
[3]  Schmitz WM, Allen MH, Feldman BN, Gutin NJ, Jahn DR, Kleespies PM, et al. Preventing suicide through improved training in suicide risk assessment and care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force report addressing serious gaps in US mental health training. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2012; 42(3): 292-304.
 
[4]  Alyami M, Alyami H, Sundram F, Cheung G, Haarhoff BA, Lyndon MP, et al. Enhancing suicide risk assessment: A novel visual metaphor learning tool. Australasian Psychiatry. 2016; 1039856216657695.
 
[5]  Dexter-Mazza ET, Freeman KA. Graduate training and the treatment of suicidal clients: The students’ perspective. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2003; 33(2): 211-8.
 
[6]  Kleespies PM, Penk WE, Forsyth JP. The stress of patient suicidal behavior during clinical training: Incidence, impact, and recovery. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 1993; 24(3): 293-303.
 
[7]  Davies S, Amos T, Appleby L. How much risk training takes place in mental health services? A national survey of training and policies. Psychiatric Bulletin. 2001; 25(6): 217-9.
 
[8]  Palmieri G, Forghieri M, Ferrari S, Pingani L, Coppola P, Colombini N, et al. Suicide intervention skills in health professionals: A multidisciplinary comparison. Archives of Suicide Research. 2008 Jun 11; 12(3): 232-7.
 
[9]  Valente SM. Oncology nurses’ knowledge of suicide evaluation and prevention. Cancer Nursing. 2010 Jul; 33(4): 290-5.
 
[10]  Bloom BS. Effects of continuing medical education on improving physician clinical care and patient health: A review of systematic reviews. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 2005; 21(3): 380-385.
 
[11]  Eppler MJ. A comparison between concept maps, mind maps, conceptual diagrams, and visual metaphors as complementary tools for knowledge construction and sharing. Information Visualization. 2006 Sep 21; 5(3): 202-10.
 
[12]  Lakoff G, Johnson M. Metaphors we live by. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2003.
 
[13]  Klemm WR. What good is learning if you don’t remember it? Journal of Effective Teaching. 2007; 7(1): 61-73.
 
[14]  Suebsom K, Dahalin ZM. Measuring knowledge transfer as learning outcomes using electronic media. Asia-Pacific collaborative Education Journal. 2010; 6(1): 77-97.
 
[15]  Lee CY, Wu FC. Factors affecting knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity in multinational corporations. The Journal of International Management Studies. 2010; 5(2): 119-126.
 
[16]  Paas FG. Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1992; 84(4): 429-34.
 
[17]  Szulewski A, Gegenfurtner A, Howes DW, Sivilotti MLA, Merriënboer JJG van. Measuring physician cognitive load: Validity evidence for a physiologic and a psychometric tool. Adv in Health Sci Educ. 2016 Oct 27; 1-18.
 
[18]  IBM Support. Downloading IBM SPSS Statistics 23 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Apr 14]. Available from: http://www.ibm.com/support, //www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24038592
 
[19]  Cowan N. The magical mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited, and why? Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2010 Feb 1; 19(1): 51-7.
 
[20]  Sweller J, Ayres PL, Kalyuga S. Cognitive load theory. New York: Springer; 2011. 274 p.
 
[21]  Schweppe J, Rummer R. Attention, working memory, and long-term memory in multimedia learning: An integrated perspective based on process models of working memory. Educ Psychol Rev. 2014 Jun 1; 26(2): 285-306.
 
[22]  Kirschner PA. Cognitive load theory: Implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning. Learning and Instruction. 2002; 12(1): 1-10.
 
[23]  Clark RC, Nguyen F, Sweller J. Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. San Francisco, CA: Wiley; 2011.
 
[24]  Qiao YQ, Shen J, Liang X, Ding S, Chen FY, Shao L, et al. Using cognitive theory to facilitate medical education. BMC Medical Education. 2014; 14(1): 79-86.
 
[25]  Kalyuga S, Chandler P, Tuovinen J, Sweller J. When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2001; 93(3): 579-88.
 
[26]  Leahy W, Sweller J. Cognitive load and the imagination effect. Appl Cognit Psychol. 2004 Nov 1; 18(7): 857-75.
 
[27]  Chi M, Glaser R, Rees E. Expertise in problem solving. In: Sternberg R, editor. Advances in the psychology of human intelligence. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1982. p. 7-75.
 
[28]  Borgo R, Abdul-Rahman A, Mohamed F, Grant PW, Reppa I, Floridi L, et al. An empirical study on using visual embellishments in visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 2012; 18(12): 2759-2768.
 
[29]  Paivio A, Csapo K. Picture superiority in free recall: Imagery or dual coding? Cognitive Psychology. 1973 Sep; 5(2): 176-206.
 
[30]  Paivio A. Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press; 1986.