American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(9), 359-365
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-9-3
Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness of Task-Based Instructional Materials in Developing Writing Skills of BS Fisheries Freshmen

Loreto B. Waguey1, and Esther R. Hufana2

1Languages Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, South La Union Campus, Agoo, La Union, Philippines Zip Code

2Graduate School, Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Zip Code

Pub. Date: October 17, 2013

Cite this paper:
Loreto B. Waguey and Esther R. Hufana. Effectiveness of Task-Based Instructional Materials in Developing Writing Skills of BS Fisheries Freshmen. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(9):359-365. doi: 10.12691/education-1-9-3


The study generally aimed to enhance the writing skills of the Bachelor of Science in Fisheries freshman students enrolled in English 102 (Writing in the Discipline) at Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU)-Institute of Fisheries (IF). Specifically, it aimed to: 1) determine the writing competency level of the students; 2) identify the learning strategies frequently used by the students; 3) develop task-based instructional materials based on the writing competency level of the students and their frequency of use of learning strategies; 4) determine the effectiveness of the task-based instructional materials in enhancing the writing performance of the students; and 5) determine the relationship between the effectiveness of the task-based instructional materials and the frequency of use of learning strategies. The first year BSF students had low level of competence in writing four types of texts (explanation of a process, recount, essay and paraphrase) and in nine writing skill areas (sentence unity, ability to carry out the task with minimal support, sentence emphasis, paragraph coherence, paragraph unity, paragraph emphasis, accuracy, sentence structure, and language features). The students’ frequency of use of learning strategies was “Medium” or “Sometimes Used” for both direct and indirect strategies. The use of the task-based instructional materials significantly increased the posttest scores of the students in paragraph unity, paragraph coherence, paragraph emphasis, methods of beginning and ending compositions and mechanics. Frequency of use of learning strategies is significantly and positively related with the pretest and posttest scores of the students. Based on the findings, the task-based instructional materials are recommended for use in order to improve students’ writing skills particularly to students who frequently use their learning strategies. Likewise, the development of task-based instructional materials is encouraged in other subjects or disciplines.

task-based instructional materials Fisheries freshmen

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Graham, S. and Perin, D., Writing next: effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools – a report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007, 3. Available:[Accessed Nov.2011].
[2]  Shokrpour, N. and Fallahzadeh, M., “A survey of the students and interns’ EFL writing problems in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences”, Iran Asian EFL journal, 9 (1), 183-198, Feb. 2008.
[3]  Nunan, D., Designing tasks for communication in the classroom, University Press, United Kingdom, 1989.
[4]  Nunan, D., Second language teaching and learning, ESP Printers Inc., Cencage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.,2009. 27, 283-285.
[5]  Liu, M. and Wang, G., “Paragraph-level errors in Chinese undergraduate EFL learners‘ compositions: a cohort study,” Theory and practice in language studies, 1 (6), 584-593. 2011.
[6]  Darus, S. and Ching, K., “Common errors in written English essays of Form One Chinese Students: A case study”, European Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2): 242-253, 2009. Available: [Accessed October, 2011].
[7]  Sari, F. K., Students’ capability in writing recount genre of the second year students of MTs MUHAMMADIYAH 6 SRIBIT, SRAGEN. Skripsi Thesis, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia, 2010.
[8]  Emotin-Bucjan, M., Development and validation of modules in English 2: Writing in the discipline, Surigao del Sur State University, Philippines, 2011. Available: mardiebucjan @yahoo. com. ph. [Accessed Dec. 2011].
[9]  Brown, D., Teaching by principles: an integrative approach to language pedagogy, Prentice-Hall, Inc. U.S.A 1994, 203-208, 189-191.
[10]  Nunan, D., Syllabus design. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 1988.
[11]  Willis, J., A framework for task-based learning, Longman, London, 1996. Available: http://www2.uni-wuppertal. de/FB4/ anglistik/ multhaup/ methods_elt/pop_ups/tbl_willis.htm. [Accessed October 2010].
[12]  White, R. and Arndt, V., Process writing, Longman, London, 1991.
[13]  Troia, G.A and Maddox, M.E., “Writing instruction in middle schools: Special and general education teachers share their views and voice their concerns”, Exceptionality, 12, 19-37. 2004.
[14]  Tullay, R. B. 2010, Multiple Intelligences of BSU Freshman Education Students and Language Materials Development, Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines, 417-418.
[15]  Nunan, D. “Communicative Tasks and the language curriculum,” TESOL quarterly, 17 (1), 39-53. 1991.
[16]  Andreou, E., Andreou, G., & Vlachos, F., “Studying orientations and performance on verbal fluency tasks in a second language”, Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 23-33.2004.
[17]  Grenfell, M. and Macaro, E., Language learner strategies: Claims and critiques, A.D. Cohen and Macaro, E. (eds.), Oxford, Oxford University Press, England, 2007, 2.
[18]  Oxford, R.,Teaching English as a second or foreign language, M. Celce-Murcia (ed), Heinle&Heinle, Singapore, 2006, 359-366.
[19]  Green, J. M. and Oxford, R., “A Closer look at learning strategies, Second language proficiency, and gender, TESOL quarterly, 29 (2), 261-267. 1995.
[20]  Ellis, E. & Farmer T., “Effects of Makes Sense Writing Strategies on 7th Grade African-American and students with disabilities’ performance on high-stakes writing assessment”, Writing SMART sheets studies, 2011. Available: http://www. graphicorganizers. com/ SMART Sheet-Research/writing-smartsheets-studies.html.[Accessed Sept. 2011].
[21]  Seow, A.,“The writing process and process writing”, Teaching of English Language and Literature, 11 (1), 60-63, 1995.
[22]  Cimcoz, Y., “Teaching ESL/SFL students to write better”, The internet TESL journal, 5 (10), Oct. 1999. [Online].Available: http:// iteslj. org/ Techniques /Cimcoz-Writing.html.[Accessed Oct. 2011].
[23]  Mingyuan, Z., “Language Learning Strategies and English language proficiency: an investigation of Chinese ESL students at National University of Singapore (NUS)”, Reflections on English language teaching journal, Vol. 1, 51-73, 2011. Available: http:// www.nus. research/relt/files/Vol1/51-73zhang.pdf. [Accessed Sept. 2011}.
[24]  Park,G.Language learning strategies and English proficiency in Korean university students, Foreign Language Annals, 30 (2), 211–221. 1997. [Online]. Available:, May, 1997 [Accessed Aug. 2011].
[25]  Wu, Y., “Language learning strategies used by students at different proficiency levels”, EFL journal, 10 (4), Dec. 2008. Available:[Accessed Jan.2012].