American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(1), 25-29
DOI: 10.12691/education-5-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Collaborative Learning on Enhancement of Students’ Self-Efficacy, Social Skills and Knowledge towards Mobile Apps Development

Queenie P. S. Law1, , Henry C. F. So1 and Joanne W. Y. Chung1

1Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong

Pub. Date: January 10, 2017

Cite this paper:
Queenie P. S. Law, Henry C. F. So and Joanne W. Y. Chung. Effect of Collaborative Learning on Enhancement of Students’ Self-Efficacy, Social Skills and Knowledge towards Mobile Apps Development. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(1):25-29. doi: 10.12691/education-5-1-4


This study investigated the impact of a collaborative learning intervention on students’ self-efficacy, social skills and knowledge toward mobile apps development. Twenty-nine undergraduate students were recruited for participation in the research study. They participated in a 12-week collaborative learning intervention. The self-efficacy for learning and performance scales from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and Social Skills Inventory were used to evaluate students’ self-efficacy in mobile apps development and social skills respectively. A knowledge of mobile apps assessment form was designed to assess a student’s knowledge in mobile apps development. The results revealed that students experienced a significant increase in knowledge of mobile apps. However, collaborative learning only has a small positive effect on a student’s self-efficacy and social skills. Implications for practice and research are provided for future study.

self-efficacy social skills collaborative learning knowledge of mobile apps

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ma, H. K, “Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents,” Sci. World J., 11. 2187-2196. 2011.
[2]  Neu, S. “Use of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Play Games by College Students,” The University of the Rockies. 2009.
[3]  Sisman, B., Yoruk, S., Eleren, A, “Social Anxiety and Usage of Online Technological Communication Tools among Adolescents,” Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 3(2). 101-115. December, 2013.
[4]  Bargh J. A., MaKenna K. Y. A, “Internet and Social Life,” Annual Review. Psychology, 55. 573. January 2004.
[5]  Ellore, S. B., Niranjan, S., and Brown U., “The Influence of Internet Usage on Academic Performance and Face-to-Face Communication,” Journal of Psychology and Behavioural Science, 2(2). 163-186. June 2014.
[6]  Weinstein, A, “Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults,” Ann. Clin. Psychiatry, 27(1). 2-7. 2015.
[7]  Anderson, K. J, “Internet use among college students: an exploratory study.,” J Am. Coll. Health, 50(1). 21-26. 2001.
[8]  Tamty MaGill Consultants International Limited, Comparison analysis between Hong Kong and mainland new generations": Survey showed differences on workplace characteristics and preferences between Hong Kong and Mainland generation Y (post 80s) and generation Z (post 90s), Tamty McGill Consultants International Ltd., Hong Kong, 2013.
[9]  Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D., W., Beechum, N. O, Teaching Adolescents To Become Learners The Role of Noncognitive Factors in Shaping School Performance: A Critical Literature Review, Consortium on Chicago School Research, Chicago, 2012.
[10]  Artino, A. R, “Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice,” Perspect. Med. Educ., 1(2). 76-85. May 2012.
[11]  Bandura, A, Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory, Prentice-Hall, Michigan, 1986.
[12]  Bandura, A, “Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change,” Psychological Review, 84(2). 191-215. January, 1977.
[13]  Schunk, D. H. “Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modelling, goal setting, and self-evaluation,” Read. Writ. Q., 19. 159-172. 2003.
[14]  Bandura, A, Self-Efficacy: The exercise of Control. New York: Worth Publishers, 1997.
[15]  Bandura, A, “Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning”, Educational Psychologist, 28(3). 117-148. 1993.
[16]  Pajares, F, “Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings,” Rev. Educ. Res., 66(4). 534-578. 1996.
[17]  Schunk, D. H., “Self-efficacy, motivation, and performance,” J. Appl. Sport Psychol., 7(2). 112-137. 1995.
[18]  Galla, B. M. J., Wood, J., Tsukayama, E., Har, K., Chiu, A. W., Langer, D. A., “A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance,” J. Sch. Psychol., 52(3). 295-308. 2014.
[19]  Smith, B.L., MacGregor, J.T, “What is collaborative learning?” In Goodsell, A., Maher, M., Tinto, V., Smith, B.L., MacGregor J. T. (Eds.), Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. National center on postsecondary teaching, learning, and assessment publishing, Pennsylvania State University, USA, 1992.
[20]  Sultan, S., Hussain, I, “Comparison between Individual and Collaborative Learning: Determining a Strategy for Promoting Social Skills and Self-Esteem among Undergraduate Students,” J. Educ. Res., 15(2). 35-44. 2012.
[21]  Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., McKeachie, W. J, A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), University of Michigan, Michigan, 1991.
[22]  Riggio, R. E, “Assessment of basic social skills.,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 51(3). 649-660. 1986.
[23]  Bandura, A, Self-efficacy in changing societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.
[24]  Stump, G. S., Hilpert, J. C., Husman, J., Chung, W. T., and Kim, W, “Collaborative Learning in Engineering Students: Gender and Achievement,” J. Eng. Educ., 100(3). 475-497. 2011.
[25]  Bargh, J. A., Schul, Y. “On the cognitive benefits of teaching.,” J. Educ. Psychol., 72(5). 593-604. 1980.
[26]  Schunk, D. H., Hanson, A. R, “Peer models: Influence on children’s self-efficacy and achievement,” J. Educ. Psychol., 77(3). 313-322. 1985.
[27]  Vygotsky, L. S, “Interaction between learning and development” In Vygotsky, L. S., Cole, M, Mind and Society, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978.
[28]  Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D, “Social support and mental health in community samples” In Cohen, S., Syme, S. L. (Eds.), Social support and health, Academic Press. San Diego, California, 1985.