American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(16), 1157-1163
DOI: 10.12691/education-4-16-6
Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Videogame Use, Deviant Behavior, and Academic Achievement among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Seniors in the United States

Luis Concepcion1, , Marilyn Nales-Torres2 and Ana Rodriguez-Zubiaurre3

1Human Services, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA, United States

2Nova Southwestern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States

3Management (Economy and Tourism), Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Pub. Date: October 20, 2016

Cite this paper:
Luis Concepcion, Marilyn Nales-Torres and Ana Rodriguez-Zubiaurre. The Relationship between Videogame Use, Deviant Behavior, and Academic Achievement among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Seniors in the United States. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(16):1157-1163. doi: 10.12691/education-4-16-6

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between video games and academic performance. Previous research has been mixed with some studies indicating a negative relationship, while others have indicated a positive association. The influence of a moderating variable, deviant behavior, was investigated, as it is hypothesized that students who frequently use videogames and participate in deviant behavior will experience low academic achievement, whereas videogame use will not affect the achievement of students who do not participate in deviant behavior. Using correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of a national sample (the 2013 “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) survey [1]), no statistically significant moderating effect for deviance was discerned. Without a moderating effect, students engaging in a greater number of video games had higher academic achievement, as measured in GPA.

Keywords:
videogames academic achievement deviant behavior adolescents

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J.G., O'Malley, P.M., & Schulenberg, J.E. (2013). Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey). ICPSR35218-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-03-26.
 
[2]  Ward, A., Stoker, H. W., & Murray-Ward, M. (1996). Achievement and ability tests-Definition of the domain. Educational Measurement, 2, 2-5.
 
[3]  Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics: teens' gaming experiences are diverse and include significant social interaction and civic engagement. Pew internet & American life project. Retrieved online from: http://www.pewinternet.org/2008/09/16/teens-video-games-and-civics/.
 
[4]  Ainin, S. A., Naqshbandi, M. M., Moghavvemi, S., & Jaafar, N. I. (2015). Video Games Do Affect Social Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Violent and Prosocial Video Game Play. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(5), 578-589.
 
[5]  York, T. T., Gibson, C., & Rankin, S. (2015). Defining and measuring academic success. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 20(5), 2.
 
[6]  Clinard, M., & Meier, R. (2015). Sociology of deviant behavior. New York, NY: Nelson Education.
 
[7]  Wood, E., Zivcakova, L., Gentile, P., Archer, K., De Pasquale, D., & Nosko, A. (2016). Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning. Computers & Education, 58(1), 364-374.
 
[8]  Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78(4), 772.
 
[9]  Ferguson, C. J. (2011). Video games and youth violence: A prospective analysis in adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence, 40(4), 377-391.
 
[10]  Weaver, J., Kim, P., Metzer, R. L., & Szendrey, J. M. (2013). The impact of video games on student GPA, study habits, and time management skills: What’s the big deal? Issues in Information Systems, 14(1), 122-128.
 
[11]  Hamlen, K. (2013). Video game strategies: Better predictors of GPA than homework strategies?. In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2013 (pp. 2115-2117). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved online from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/48415.
 
[12]  Ku, C. H., Kwak, M., Yurov, K., & Yurova, Y. (2014). A Study of the Influence of Gaming Behavior on Academic Performance of IT College Students. Paper presented at Twentieth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Savannah, GA (pp. 1-11).
 
[13]  Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 552-559.
 
[14]  Burgess, S. R., Stermer, S. P., & Burgess, M. C. (2012). Video game playing and academic performance in college students. College Student Journal, 46(2), 376.
 
[15]  Böö, R. (2014). Video game playing, academic performance, educational activity, and motivation among secondary school students. Retrieved online from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:729260/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
 
[16]  Craton, J. (2011). The Effect of Videogames on Student Achievement. Retrieved online from http://www.acsd.org/article/the-effect-of-videogames-on-student-achievement/.
 
[17]  McCutcheon, L. E., & Campbell, J. D. (1986). The impact of video game playing on academic performance at a community college. Community/Junior College Quarterly, 10(1), 59-63.
 
[18]  Drummond, A., & Sauer, J. D. (2014). Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading. PloS one, 9(4), e87943.
 
[19]  Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. Retrieved online from http://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2014/PSY704/50497615/hayes_2012_navod_process.pdf.
 
[20]  California State University. (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Retrieved online from: https://www.calstatela.edu/sites/default/files/groups/Information%20Technology%20Services/training/ pdf/spss22p3.pdf.
 
[21]  Nord, C., Roey, S., Perkins, S., Lyons, M., Lemanski, N., Schuknecht, J., & Brown, J. (2011). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, America’s High School Graduates: Results of the 2009 NAEP High School Transcript Study. Retrieved online from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011462.
 
[22]  Yonezawa, S. (2000). Unpacking the black box of tracking decisions: Critical tales of families navigating the course placement process. In M. Sanders & W. Jordan (Eds) Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy, practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents (pp. 109-140).
 
[23]  Sanders, M. G., & Jordan, W. J. (Eds.). (2013). Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy, and practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents. New York, NY: Routledge.
 
[24]  Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2015). Uniform Crime Reports: Juvenile Arrest Rates by Offense, Sex, and Race (1980-2014). Retrieved online from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/crime/excel/JAR_2014.xls.
 
[25]  Needham, B. L., Crosnoe, R., & Muller, C. (2004). Academic Failure in Secondary School: The Inter-Related Role of Health Problems and Educational Context. Social Problems, 51(4), 569-586.
 
[26]  Crosnoe, R. (2002). High school curriculum track and adolescent association with delinquent friends. Journal of Adolescent Research,17(2), 143-167.
 
[27]  Miller, S. R. (1998). Shortcut: High school grades as a signal of human capital. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 20(4), 299-311.
 
[28]  Rosenbaum, J. E., DeLuca, S., Miller, S. R., & Roy, K. (1999). Pathways into work: Short-and long-term effects of personal and institutional ties. Sociology of education (72), 3, 179-196.
 
[29]  Steinberg, L. D., Brown, B. B., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1996). Beyond the classroom: Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 0684835754.
 
[30]  Becker, G. (1962). Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 70(5), 9-49.
 
[31]  Mirowsky J. & Ross C.E. (2003). Social Causes of Psychological Distress. New York, NY: Hawethorne.
 
[32]  Wilson, W. J. (1978). The declining significance of race. Society, 15(5), 11-11.
 
[33]  Suh, S., Suh, J., & Houston, I. (2007). Predictors of categorical at-risk high school dropouts. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 85(2), 196.
 
[34]  Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of high-school grades in predicting student success beyond the freshman year: High-school record vs. standardized tests as indicators of four-year college outcomes. Center for studies in higher education. IREC: ED502858
 
[35]  Kittelsen Røberg, K. I., & Helland, H. (2016). Do grades in higher education matter for labour market rewards? A multilevel analysis of all Norwegian graduates in the period 1990-2006. Journal of Education and Work, 1-20.
 
[36]  Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 235-251.
 
[37]  Coley, R. J. (2002). An uneven start: Indicators of inequality in school readiness. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. ERIC: ED466473.
 
[38]  Palardy, G. J. (2008). Differential school effects among low, middle, and high social class composition schools: A multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19, 21-49.
 
[39]  National Center for Education Statistics. (2008). Percentage of high school dropouts among persons 16 through 24 years old (status dropout rate), by income level, and percentage distribution of status dropouts, by labor force status and educational attainment: 1970 through 2007.
 
[40]  Harris, M. B., & Williams, R. (1985). Video games and school performance. Education, 105(3), 306-309.
 
[41]  Stinebrickner, T. R., & Stinebrickner, R. National Bureau of Economic Research, (2007). The casual effect of studying on academic performance (Working Paper 1334). Retrieved from website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13341.
 
[42]  Schmidt, M. E., & Vandewater, E. A. (2008). Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement. The Future of Children, 18(1), 63-85.
 
[43]  Beard, K. S. (2015). Theoretically Speaking: An Interview with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi on Flow Theory Development and Its Usefulness in Addressing Contemporary Challenges in Education. Educational Psychology Review, 27(2), 353-364.
 
[44]  Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The concept of flow. In M. Csikszentmihalyi, Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology (pp. 239-263). Chicago, IL: Springer Netherlands.
 
[45]  Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Play and intrinsic rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 15(3), 41-63.
 
[46]  Murphy, C. (2011). Why games work and the science of learning. In Interservice, Interagency Training, Simulations, and Education Conference (pp. 260-272). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.467.3543&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
 
[47]  Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Adolescent behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement trajectories in school and their differential relations to educational success. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 31-39.
 
[48]  Wang, M. T., & Dishion, T. J. (2012). The trajectories of adolescents' perceptions of school climate, deviant peer affiliation, and behavioral problems during the middle school years. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 52(1), 40-53.
 
[49]  Nelson, J. R., Benner, G. J., Lane, K., & Smith, B. (2004). Academic achievement of K-12 students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Exceptional Children, 71(1), 59-73.
 
[50]  Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772.
 
[51]  Hull, J. G., Brunelle, T. J., Prescott, A. T., & Sargent, J. D. (2014). A longitudinal study of risk-glorifying video games and behavioral deviance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(2), 300.
 
[52]  Exelmans, L., Custers, K., & Van den Bulck, J. (2015). Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: a risk factor perspective. Aggressive Behavior, 41(3), 267-279.
 
[53]  Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., Warner, D. E., Almerigi, J. B., Baer, L., Nicholi, A. M., & Beresin, E. V. (2007). Factors correlated with violent video game use by adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1), 77-83.
 
[54]  Entertainment Software Rating Board. (2016). How much do you know about videogames? Retrieved from http://www.esrb.org/about/video-game-industry-statistics.aspx.
 
[55]  Allen, J. D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 78(5), 218-223.
 
[56]  Sharma, A. D. (2013). General Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Success. International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal 4(46), 26-27.
 
[57]  Qualter, P., Gardner, K. J., Pope, D. J., Hutchinson, J. M., & Whiteley, H. E. (2012). Ability emotional intelligence, trait emotional intelligence, and academic success in British secondary schools: A 5year longitudinal study. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(1), 83-91.
 
[58]  Cigic, D., Cavar, I., Babic, D., Vasilj, I., & Martinac, M. (2015). Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Personality Types with Success in School. European Psychiatry, 30, 1526.
 
[59]  Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Mastoras, S. M., Beaton, L., & Osborne, S. E. (2012). Relationships of personality, affect, emotional intelligence and coping with student stress and academic success: Different patterns of association for stress and success. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 251-257.
 
[60]  Parker, J. D., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163-172.
 
[61]  DeBerard, M. S., Spielmans, G. I., & Julka, D. L. (2004). Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen: A longitudinal study. College Student Journal, 38(1), 66. Retrieved from http://www.se.edu/dept/native-american-center/files/2012/04/PREDICTORS-OF-ACADEMIC- ACHIEVEMENT-AND-RETENTION-AMONG-COLLEGE-FRESHMEN.pdf.
 
[62]  Phinney, J. S., Dennis, J. M., & Chuateco, L. I. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(3), 223-236.
 
[63]  Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877-895.
 
[64]  Rienties, B., Beausaert, S., Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., & Kommers, P. (2012). Understanding academic performance of international students: The role of ethnicity, academic and social integration. Higher education, 63(6), 685-700.
 
[65]  Liang, S., Li, H., & Yang, X. (2014). The Video Game from the Perspective of Positive Psychology. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2(08), 57.
 
[66]  Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction (pp. 279-298). New York, NY: Springer Netherlands.
 
[67]  Guarini, D. (2013). 9 Ways videogames can actually be good for you. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/07/video-games-good-for-us_n_4164723.html.
 
[68]  Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
 
[69]  Christakis, D. A., Ebel, B. E., Rivara, F. P., & Zimmerman, F. J. (2004). Television, video, and computer game usage in children under 11 years of age. The Journal of Pediatrics, 145(5), 652-656.
 
[70]  American Psychology Association. (2013). APA Review Confirms Link Between Playing Violent Video Games and Aggression. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/08/violent-video-games.aspx.
 
[71]  Kasen, S., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. S. (1998). Adolescent School Experiences and Dropout, Adolescent Pregnancy, and Young Adult Deviant Behavior. Journal of Adolescent Research, 13(1), 49-72.
 
[72]  Parker, J. D., Creque, R. E., Barnhart, D. L., Harris, J. I., Majeski, S. A., Wood, L. M., ... & Hogan, M. J. (2004). Academic achievement in high school: does emotional intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1321-1330.
 
[73]  McEvoy, A., & Welker, R. (2000). Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate a critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral disorders, 8(3), 130-140.
 
[74]  Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85(2), 722-737.
 
[75]  Berger, Christian, Alcalay, Lidia, Torretti, Alejandra, & Milicic, Neva. (2011). Socio-emotional well-being and academic achievement: evidence from a multilevel approach. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24(2), 344-351.
 
[76]  Donovan, J. E. (1996). Problem-behavior theory and the explanation of adolescent marijuana use. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2), 379-404.
 
[77]  Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458.
 
[78]  Bonner, T. D., & Aspy, D. N. (1984). A study of the relationship between student empathy and GPA. The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 22(4), 149-154.
 
[79]  Perkins, R., Kleiner, B., Roey, S., & Brown, J. (2004). The High School Transcript Study: A Decade of Change in Curricula and Achievement, 1990-2000. NCES 2004-455. National Center for Education Statistics. New York, NY: Diane Publishing.
 
[80]  Sadler, D. R. (2009). Grade integrity and the representation of academic achievement. Studies in Higher Education, 34(7), 807-826.