American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(6), 427-438
DOI: 10.12691/education-4-6-1
Open AccessArticle

Understanding Gender and Race Differences in High School Achievement in the United States

Gokhan Savas1,

1Social Sciences University of Ankara, Turkey

Pub. Date: April 21, 2016

Cite this paper:
Gokhan Savas. Understanding Gender and Race Differences in High School Achievement in the United States. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(6):427-438. doi: 10.12691/education-4-6-1


The purpose of this study was to examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in high school achievement measured by students’ high school GPAs and their standardized math and reading test scores. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 was used to investigate the following question: To what extent do school behaviors, attitudes toward school/teacher, students’ educational expectations, and parental involvement and expectations impact gender and racial/ethnic differences in high school achievement? Results supported gender-role socialization theory given that female students than their male counterparts have higher educational expectations, parental support and expectations. Male students are more likely to have negative school behavior and are also more likely to spend less time on homework compared to female students. The results suggested that oppositional culture does not account for racial/ethnic differences but for gender differences in high school achievement given that gender differences in school resistance and educational expectations are consistent whereas race/ethnic differences are not.

gender race high school achievement gender-role oppositional culture

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