American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(3), 283-287
DOI: 10.12691/education-4-3-9
Open AccessArticle

Oral English Communication Strategies among Vietnamese Non-majors of English at Intermediate Level

Nguyen Thi Thu1, and Nguyen Thi Kieu Thu2,

1Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

2Faculty of Foreign Languages, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Pub. Date: March 19, 2016

Cite this paper:
Nguyen Thi Thu and Nguyen Thi Kieu Thu. Oral English Communication Strategies among Vietnamese Non-majors of English at Intermediate Level. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(3):283-287. doi: 10.12691/education-4-3-9


English communicative competence is now considered as a golden key to the successful integration into the world. However, it is widely accepted that oral communicative competence of English non-majors in Vietnam is far from expectation at the completion of university education. Meanwhile, studies on communication strategies (CSs) are insufficient in Vietnam as most previous communication-related studies in Vietnamese context appeared to mainly focus on linguistic or methodological factors influencing communicative competences of Vietnamese students. Thus, this paper reports a study which generalizes communication strategies by Vietnamese non-majors of English whose English proficiency is intermediate. The study was both quantitative qualitative in which an integrated CS framework by Malasit, Y. and Sarobol, N. (2013) [1] combining those of Tarone (1980) [2], Faerch & Kasper (1983) [3], and Dornyei & Scott (1997) [4] was used to analyse and identify students’ use of CSs in their recorded speaking performance. Data from recordings and informal interviews with the students will help provide recommendations for English teaching and learning for communicative competence in Vietnam.

oral communication strategies English non-majors intermediate

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Malasit, Y. and Sarobol, N., Use of Communication Strategies by Thai EFL Learners, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, Language Institute, Thammasat University, 2013.
[2]  Tarone, E., Communication strategies foreign talk and repair in interlanguage, Language Learning, 1980, 417-431.
[3]  Faerch, C. and Kasper, G., Strategies in interlanguage communication, London and New York: Longman, 1983, 20-26.
[4]  Dörnyei, Z., and Scott, M. L., Review article: Communication strategies in a second language: definition and taxonomies, Language learning, 1997.
[5]  Le., T. T. H., Teaching communication strategies to Vietnamese learners of English, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, School of Education, Columbia University, USA, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2015 from:
[6]  Bui, T. T. Q., Strategies employed by EFL English majors for coping with communication strategies breakdowns, Doctoral Dissertation in English Language Studies, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand.
[7]  Dinh, T.N.H., The effects of gender on communication strategies of Vietnamese EFL learners. Presented at 4th Annual International Conference on TESOL English Language Learning: A Focus on the Learners.”, SEMEO RESTRAC, Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam, 2013.
[8]  Tarone, E., Cohen, A. D., and Dumas, G., A closer look at some interlanguage terminology: A framework for communication strategies, London: Longman,1976, 78.
[9]  Bialystok, E., Some factors in the selections and implementation of communicative strategies, in Faerch, C. & Kasper, G., Strategies in interlanguage communication, London and New York: Longman, 1983.
[10]  Canale, M., From communicative language competence to communicative language pedagogy, in Richards J. C. & Schmidt R. W. (Eds), Language and communication, 1983, 2-27.
[11]  Stern, H., Fundamental concepts of language teaching, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
[12]  Poulisse, N., The use of compensatory strategies by Dutch Learners of English, Dordrecht: Foris Publication, 1900.
[13]  Ellis, R., Communication Strategies and the Evaluation of Communicative Performance, ELT Journal 38, 1984, 39-44.
[14]  Bygate, M., Speaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
[15]  Lam, W. Y. K., Gauging the effects of ESL oral communication strategy teaching: A multi-method approach, Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2006, 3(2), 142-157.
[16]  Williams, J., Combining communication strategies and vocabulary development, The Internet TESL Journal, 2006, XII(2).
[17]  Bialystok, E., Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second – language use, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.
[18]  Paribakht. T., Strategic competence and language proficiency, Applied Linguistics, 1985, 6(2): 132-146.
[19]  Poulisse, N., Problems and solutions in the classification of compensatory strategies, Second Language Research, 1987, 141-153.
[20]  Nakatani, Y., The effects of awareness-raising training on oral communication strategy use, The Modern Language Journal, 2006, 89/1, 76-91.
[21]  Mariani, L., Communication strategies: Learning and teaching how to mangage oral interaction, NA: Learning Path-Tante Vie Per Imparare, 2010.
[22]  Somsai, S. and Intaraprasert, C., Strategies for coping with face-to-face oral communication employed by Thai University students majoring in English, GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 2011, 11(3), 83-96.
[23]  Bialystok, E., Some factors in the selections and implementation of communicative strategies, In C. Færch and G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in inter-language communication, Longman, London and New York, 1983, 100-118.
[24]  Willems, G., Communication strategies and their significance in foreign language teaching, 1987, 351-364.
[25]  Dörnyei, Z., On teachability of communication strategies, TESOL Quarterly, 1995, 29(1), 55-85.
[26]  Dörnyei, Z., and Scott, M. L., Review Article: Communication strategies in second language: definition and taxonomies, Language Learning, 1997, 47(1), 173-210.
[27]  Gradman, H., and Hanania, E., Language learning background factors and ESL proficiency, Modern Language Journal, 1991, 75(1).
[28]  Wannaruk, A., Communication strategies employed by EST students, 2003, 1-18.
[29]  Lam, W. Y. K., Implementing communication strategy instruction for the ESL oral classroom: What do low-proficiency learners tell us?, TESL Canada Journal/ Revue TESL Du Canada, 2010, 27(2): 11-30.
[30]  Aliakbari, M., and Karimi, A., Communication strategies in the written medium: The effect of Language proficiency, Linguistik onine, 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from
[31]  Rabab’ah, G. and Bulut, D., Compensatory strategies in Arabic as a second language, Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 2007, 43(2), 83-106.
[32]  Chen, H. W., Oral communication strategies used by English major college students in Taiwan: a case of Chaoyang University of Technology, Master Thesis, Department of Applied Foreign Languages, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, 1990.
[33]  Nakatani, Y., The effects of awareness-raising training oral communication strategy use, The Modern Language Journal, 2005, 89(i): 76-91.
[34]  Kongsom, T., The effects of teaching communication strategies to Thai learners of English, 2009, in Bui, T. T. Q., and Intaraprasert, C., Gender, High School Background and Use of Strategies by English Majors in Vietnam for Coping with Communication Breakdowns, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2012, Retrieved June 25, 2012 from: http://www.ijsPalmberg, R., Investigating Communication Strategies, Perception and Production of English, Papers in Inter-language, Ed. Rolf Palmberg. Abo: Abo Akademi, 1979. 33-75, 55-85.
[35]  Tarone, E., The arm of the chair is where you use for to write. Developing strategic competence in a second language, In Ed. Meara, Paul. Spoken language, London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research, 1986, 15-27.
[36]  Tarone, E., Conscious Communication Strategies in Interlanguage: A Progress Report. On TESOL’77, Ed. Douglas Brown, Ca Yorio and Ruth Crymes, Washington D.C.: TESOL, 1977, 194-203.
[37]  Tarone, E and Yule, G., Communication strategies in East-West interaction, Conference on English as an international language: Discourse patterns across cultures, Honolulu, Hawaii., 1983
[38]  Wharton, G., Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore, Language Learning, 2000, 50, 203-243.