American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(2), 150-154
DOI: 10.12691/education-4-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students’ Academic Performance

Carl J. Dunst1, and Deborah W. Hamby1

1Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute, S. Sterling Street, Morganton, NC, USA

Pub. Date: February 17, 2016

Cite this paper:
Carl J. Dunst and Deborah W. Hamby. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students’ Academic Performance. American Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 4(2):150-154. doi: 10.12691/education-4-2-2

Abstract

The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students’ academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 American Community Survey were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk factors. The outcome measures were the 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress 4th and 8th grade reading and mathematics scores and high school graduation rates. Results showed that between 40% and 64% of the variance in students’ academic performance was accounted for by cumulative family risk factor measure. The results indicate a need to consider, if not take into consideration, family influences outside of schools as part of improving student academic performance.

Keywords:
family risk factors cumulative risk academic performance high school graduation rates

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  National Commission on Excellence in Education, A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: A report to the nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education. 1983, Washington, DC: The Commission.
 
[2]  American Institutes for Research, Three decades of education reform: Are we still "a nation at risk?". 2013.
 
[3]  Borek, J., A nation at risk at 25. Phi Delta Kappan, 2008. 74(8): p. 572-574.
 
[4]  Wong, K.K., J.W. Guthrie, and D.N. Harris, A nation at risk: A 20-year reappraisal. Peabody Journal of Education, 2004. 79(1): p. Special Issue.
 
[5]  Forgione, P.D., Achievement in the United States: Progress since a nation at risk? 1998, Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education.
 
[6]  National Center for Education Statistics, The nation's report card: Trends in academic progress 2012 (NCES 2013 456). 2013, Washington, D.C.: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
 
[7]  LeFevre, A.T., Report card on American education:A state-by-state analysis, 1985-1986 to 2006-2007. 2008, Washington, DC: American Legislative Exchange Council.
 
[8]  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. 2014, Paris, France: Author.
 
[9]  Coulson, A., State education trends: Academic performance and spending over the past 40 years. 2014.
 
[10]  LeFevre, A.T., Report card on American education: A state-by-state analysis. 15th ed. 2008, Washington, DC: American Legislative Exchange Council.
 
[11]  Grissmer, D.W., et al., Improving student achievement: What state NAEP test scores tell us. 2000, Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
 
[12]  Lee, J. and T. Reeves, Revisiting the impact of NCLB high-stakes school accountability, capacity, and resources: State NAEP 1990-2009 reading and math achievement gaps and trends. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2012. 34(2): p. 209-231.
 
[13]  U. S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation, Leaders & laggards: A state-by-state report card on K–12 educational effectiveness. 2014, Washington, DC: Author.
 
[14]  Hanushek, E.A., P.E. Peterson, and L. Woessmann, Endangering prosperity: A global view of the American school. 2013, Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institution.
 
[15]  Sirin, S.R., Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 2005. 75(3): p. 417-453.
 
[16]  Reardon, S.F., The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations, in Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children's life chances, G.J. Duncan and R.J. Murnane, Editors. 2011, Russell Sage Foundation: New York. p. 91-116.
 
[17]  Lacour, M. and L.D. Tissington, The effects of poverty on academic achievement. Educational Research and Reviews, 2011. 8(7): p. 522-527.
 
[18]  Willingham, D.T., Ask the cognitive scientist: Why does family wealth affect learning? American Educator, 2012. 36(1): p. 33-39.
 
[19]  Lee, J. and V.J. Shute, Personal and social-contextual factors in K–12 academic performance: An integrative perspective on student learning. Educational Psychologist, 2010. 45(3): p. 1-19.
 
[20]  O’Malley, M., et al., School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: A study of moderation effects. School Psychology Quarterly, 2015. 30(1): p. 142-157.
 
[21]  Swanson, J., C. Valiente, and K. Lemery-Chalfant, Predicting academic achievement from cumulative home risk: The mediating roles of effortful control, academic relationships, and school avoidance. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2012. 58(3): p. 375-408.
 
[22]  Suh, S. and J. Suh, Risk factors and levels of risk for high school dropouts. Professional School Counseling, 2007. 10: p. 297-306.
 
[23]  Evans, G.W., D. Li, and S. Sepanski Whipple, Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 2013. 139(6): p. 1342-1396.
 
[24]  Whipple, S.S., et al., An ecological perspective on cumulative school and neighborhood risk factors related to achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2010. 31(6): p. 422-427.
 
[25]  Scott, L.A., S.J. Ingels, and J.A. Owings, Interpreting 12th-graders’ NAEP-scaled mathematics performance using high school predictors and postsecondary outcomes from the national education longitudinal study of 1988 (NELS:88): Statistical analysis report. 2007, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[26]  National Center for Education Statistics, National assessment of educational progress. 2015, Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.
 
[27]  Stetser, M.C. and R. Stillwell, Public high school four-year on time graduation rates and event dropout rates: School years 2010-11 and 2011-12. First look (NCES 2014-391). 2014, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[28]  Gutman, L.M., A.J. Sameroff, and J.S. Eccles, The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2002. 30(3): p. 367-399.
 
[29]  Brooks-Gunn, J., Children in families in communities: Risk and intervention in the Bronfenbrenner tradition, in Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development, P. Moen, G.H. Elder, Jr., and K. Luscher, Editors. 1995, American Psychological Association: Washington, DC. p. 467-519.
 
[30]  Berns, R.M., Child, family, school, community: Socialization and support. 2013, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
 
[31]  Kominski, R., D. Elliott, and M. Clever. Risk factors for children in the U.S., states, and metropolitan areas: Data from the 2007 American Community Survey 1-year estimates. in the annual meeting of the Population Association of America. 2009. Detroit, MI.
 
[32]  Mrazek, P.J. and R.J. Haggerty, eds. Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. 1994, National Academy Press: Washington, DC.
 
[33]  Sameroff, A., et al., Family and community influences on the development of child competence, in Families, risk, and competence, M. Lewis and C. Feiring, Editors. 1998, Lawrenc Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ. p. 161-185.
 
[34]  Dunst, C.J., C.M. Trivette, and D.W. Hamby, Relationships between family risk and opportunity factors and parent and child functioning. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 2014. 4(2): p. 10-23.
 
[35]  Snyder, D.T. and S.A. Dillow, Digest of educational statistics 2013 (NCES 2015-011). 2015, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[36]  Snyder, D.T. and S.A. Dillow, Digest of educational statistics 2011 (NCES 2012-011). 2012, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[37]  Snyder, D.T. and S.A. Dillow, Digest of educational statistics 2009 (NCES 2010-013). 2010, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[38]  Snyder, D.T., S.A. Dillow, and C.M. Hoffman, Digest of educational statistics 2007 (NCES 2008-022). 2008, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
 
[39]  National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts/consolidated state performance report, school years 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13. 2015: http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/account/consolidated/index.html.
 
[40]  Burchinal, M., et al., Social risk and protective child, parenting, and child care factors in early elementary school years. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2006. 6: p. 79-113.
 
[41]  Cebula, R.J., F.G. Mixon, and M.A. Montez, Teachers’ salaries and human capital, and their effects on academic performance: an institution-level analysis of Los Angeles County high schools. Journal of Economics and Finance, 2015. 39(2): p. 347-356.
 
[42]  Garbarino, J., Children and families in the social environment. 2nd ed. 1992, New York, NY: de Gruyter.
 
[43]  Bronfenbrenner, U., Ecological models of human development, in International encyclopedia of education, T. Husen and N. Postlethwaite, Editors. 1994, Elsevier: Oxford, UK. p. 1643-1647.
 
[44]  Gutman, L.M. and A.J. Sameroff, Academic growth curve trajectories from 1st grade to 12th grade: Effects of multiple social risk factors and preschool child factors. Developmental Psychology, 2003. 39(4): p. 777-790.