American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(9), 1091-1097
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-9-5
Open AccessArticle

Listening Enhancement: Converting Input into Intake

Li-ling Chuang1, and Cindy Wang1

1GICE, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan

Pub. Date: August 25, 2015

Cite this paper:
Li-ling Chuang and Cindy Wang. Listening Enhancement: Converting Input into Intake. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(9):1091-1097. doi: 10.12691/education-3-9-5


To facilitate language understanding and learning, listening takes on significant meaning as it is an essential source of language input in second language acquisition. In an EFL setting of Taiwan where it lacks native speakers to begin with, listening becomes pivotal for foreign language learning to occur. With listening comprehension paving the way for language learning, various research has noticed that effective listening benefits language learners in developing other language skills. In view of its growing importance, it merits attention regarding how teaching listening comprehension at the forefront maximizes young learners’ learning outcomes. Given the implicit unidirectionality, listening is often regarded as difficult for foreign language learners. With contextual story grammar mapping underlying the listening construct, learners can otherwise engage in listening interaction, resulting in bidirectional listening that affords comprehensible input. The present study, lasting for 21 weeks, investigates how contextual story grammar mapping instruction with Reading-While-Listening (RWL) impacts on Taiwanese sixth graders’ listening comprehension. Forty 6th graders in central Taiwan were recruited. The results of the current study attest that RWL combined with contextual story grammar mapping improves students’ listening comprehension and enhances their reading proficiency. What’s more, the findings lend further credence to the reciprocal relationship between listening comprehension and reading achievement.

contextual story grammar mapping listening comprehension Reading-While-Listening

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 5


[1]  Arnold, D. J., & Brooks, P. H. (1976). Influence of contextual organizing material on children’s listening comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 711-716.
[2]  Boulineau, T., Fore III, C., Hagan-Burke, S., & Burke, M. D. (2004). Use of story-mapping to increase the story-grammar text comprehension of elementary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 105-121.
[3]  Brown, R., Waring, R., & Donkaewbua, S. (2008). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20, 136-163.
[4]  Chang, C-S. (2009). Gains to L2 listeners from reading while listening versus listening only in comprehending short stories. System, 37, 652-663.
[5]  Chang, C-S. (2011). The effect of reading while listening to audiobooks: Listening fluency and vocabulary gain. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 21, 43-64.
[6]  Chang, C-S., & Read, J. (2006). The effect of listening support on the listening performance of EFL learners. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 375-397.
[7]  Chomsky, C. (1972). Stages in language development and reading exposure. Harvard Educational Review, 42, 1-33.
[8]  Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3(3), 149-210.
[9]  Denis, M. (1984). Imagery and prose: A critical review of research on adults and children. Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse, 4(4), 381-402.
[10]  Diakidoy, I-A., Stylianou, P., Karefillidou, C., & Papageorgiou, P. (2005). The relationship between listening and reading comprehension of different types of text at increasing grade levels. Reading Psychology, 26(1), 55-80.
[11]  Ellis, R. (1994). A theory of instructed second language acquisition. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages. Academic Press.
[12]  Ellis, R. (1995). Interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 1.
[13]  Gagliardi, A. (2012). Input and intake in language acquisition. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Maryland, USA.
[14]  Gilakjani, A., & Ahmadi, A. (2011). A study of factors affecting EFL learners' English listening comprehension and the strategies for improvement. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 977-988.
[15]  Hou, C-H. (2007). A study of multimedia annotations and story grammar instruction on Chinese EFL sixth graders’ vocabulary learning and reading Comprehension (Master’s thesis). National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
[16]  Kingston, M. (2007). Improving kindergarteners listening comprehension through story grammar and retelling instruction (Master’s thesis). Cardinal Stritch University, Wisconsin, USA.
[17]  Lerkkanen, M-K., Rasku-Puttonen, H., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J-E. (2004). Predicting reading performance during the first and the second year of primary school. British Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 67-92.
[18]  Lo, C-Y. (2010). The correlations between EFL young learners listening comprehension and their reading abilities (Master’s thesis). National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
[19]  Montague, M., Maddux, C. D., & Dereshiwsky, M. I. (1990). Story grammar and comprehension and production of narrative prose by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(3), 190-197.
[20]  Morley, J. (2001). Aural comprehension instruction: Principles and practices. In M. Celce Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed., pp. 69-85). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
[21]  Morrow, L. M. (1984). Reading stories to young children: Effects of story structure and traditional questioning strategies on comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 16(4), 273-288.
[22]  Mueller, G. (1980). Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 64, 335-340.
[23]  Nunan, D. (2002). Listening in language learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching (pp. 238-241). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[24]  Pienemann, M. (1989). Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 10, 52-79.
[25]  Richards, J. C. (2005). Second thoughts on teaching listening. Regional Language Centre Journal, 36(1), 85-92.
[26]  Rubin, J. (1994). A review of second language listening comprehension research. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 199-221.
[27]  Rumelhart, D. E. (1975). Notes on a schema for stories. In D. G. Brown & A. Collins (Eds.), Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science. New York: Academic Press.
[28]  Sadow, M. (1982). The use of story grammar in the design of questions. The Reading Teacher, 35, 518-521.
[29]  Schmidt, R. (1994). Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review, 11, 11-26.
[30]  Schumann, J. ( 1978). The pidginization process: A model for second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
[31]  Shrum, J. L., & Glisan, E. W. (1994). Teachers handbook: Contextualized language instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
[32]  Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[33]  Stein, N. L., & Glenn, C. G. (1975). An analysis of story comprehension in elementary school children: A test of a schema. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 121 474.
[34]  Tedjaatmadja, H. M. (2012). I can see what I hear: Reading-while-listening (RWL) to develop listening fluency. Paper presented at Language in the Online and Offline World 3: The Transformation, Surabaya, Indonesia.
[35]  Thorndyke, P. W. (1977). Cognitive structures in comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 77-110.
[36]  Tsai, Y., & Chuang, L. (2012). The effects of story retelling with think-pair-share on reading comprehension, Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on English Teaching, Taipei, Taiwan.
[37]  Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. New York: Longman Inc.
[38]  Ur, P. (1984). Teaching listening comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[39]  Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. (2011). Teaching an testing listening comprehension. In M. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 395-411). USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[40]  VanPatten, B. (2002). Processing instruction: An update. Language Learning, 52, 755-803.
[41]  Wu, S-Y. (2011). Effects of picture books combining with story structure strategy on reading comprehension and summarization learning for third graders (Master’s thesis). National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan.