American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(8), 959-963
DOI: 10.12691/education-3-8-2
Open AccessArticle

Focusing on Change in Educational Leadership: The Need for Female Leaders in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

AKUDO FLORENCE U.1, and OKENWA GETRUDE N.2

1Department of Educational Foundations and Administration, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Educational Foundations, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 03, 2015

Cite this paper:
AKUDO FLORENCE U. and OKENWA GETRUDE N.. Focusing on Change in Educational Leadership: The Need for Female Leaders in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 3(8):959-963. doi: 10.12691/education-3-8-2

Abstract

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria guaranteed social, economic and political rights to all citizens irrespective of sex, age, religion, cultural background among others. But it was observed that women are under-represented in leadership positions in the tertiary education sector of the nation, even though they constitute the majority of the teaching workforce. They seem to possess unique qualities that enhance their leadership potentials, as they bring into leadership communication, intermediary and interpersonal skills that many men do not possess. This paper argues that educational leadership in Nigeria need to be re-focused. It presents research findings using Personality assessment questions, demographic analysis and interview on the personality qualities and motivational factors of leaders in the tertiary institutions in Anambra State of Nigeria. Literature were reviewed on leadership, educational leadership, changes and rational for change in formal organization and female leadership. It concludes that there are no distinctive variance in male and female leadership roles. But that female leaders are more assertive, persuasive, emphatic, flexible and are willing to take risks etc. That application of more sustainable leadership styles would lead to change in educational leadership in Nigeria.

Keywords:
focus change leadership educational leadership female leaders tertiary institutions

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Cole, G.A. (2002). Personnel and human resources management. London: Education, Low Sponsored Text (5th Ed.).
 
[2]  Onifade, A. (2001). Management: office business education. Abeokuta: Kappco Nigeria Ltd.
 
[3]  Kouzes, J.&Posner B. (2007). The leadership challenges C.A: Jossey Bass.
 
[4]  Northouse G. (2007). Leadership theory and practice (3rd ed.). London: New Delhe, Sage Publications, Inc.
 
[5]  Nwankwo, I. &Ibe, A. (2012). Problems, and prospects of youth preparation in Nigeria secondary schools for leadership and national development. In A.O. Ajeni, U.G. Emetarom, A.O. Okwari, J.A. Undie & J.E. Okon (eds) Managing education for national transformation. Ibadan: His Lineage Publishing House.
 
[6]  Jago, A.G. (1982). Leadership: Perspectives in theory and research. Journal of management science 28(3) 315-332.
 
[7]  Brinia, V. (2011). Female educational leadership in primary education in Greece: A theoretical framework based on experiences of female school leaders. In Journal of International Studies in Educational Administration Vol. 39 (3).
 
[8]  Adepoju, T.L. (2005). Educational administration. A guide. Ibadan: Corporate Publications.
 
[9]  Fadipe, J.O.& Adepoju, T.L. (2009). Change and innovation process in formal organizations. In J .B. Babalola & A.O. Ayeni (eds) educational management theories and task. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.
 
[10]  Adepoju, T.L. (2006). Educational system in Nigeria. Lagos: Prospects Publications.
 
[11]  Swam, M. (2010). The qualities that distinguishes women leaders. Retrieved from www.calipercorp.com on 18 February, 2014.
 
[12]  Greenberg, H. (2009). Women leaders. Retrieved on 18 February, 2014 from www.calipercorp.com.
 
[13]  Llopis, G. (2011). Leadership. Retrieved from www.forbes.com/.../skills-that- gives-women-a-sustainable-advantage-over-men on 18 February, 2014.
 
[14]  Montiel, M. (2011). Women leaders. Retrieved on 18 February, 2014 from www.forbes.com/.../women-leaders-must-drive-in-not-just-learn-in-part.
 
[15]  Bennis, W. (1999). The Leadership Advantage, Lenders to Leader 12:18-23.
 
[16]  Blackmore, J. (1999). Troubling Women: Feminism, Leadership and Educational Change (Open University press, Buckingham).
 
[17]  Brenner, O.C. (1982). Relationships of Education to Sex, Managerial Status, and the Managerial Stereotype. Journal of Applied Psychology 67:380-388.
 
[18]  Bush, T. & Clover, D. (2003), School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence (Nottingham: National College for School Leadership).
 
[19]  Coleman, M. (2002). Gender and Leadership Style: The Self-Perceptions of Secondary Headteachers. Paper given at the Belmas Annual Conference At Aston University, Birmingham, 20-22 September.
 
[20]  Comer, L.B., Jolson, M.A., Dubinsky, A.J. & yammarino, F.J. (1995). When the Sales Manager is a Woman: An Exploration into the Relationship between Salespeople’s Gender and their Responses to Leadership Styles. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 15(4):17-22.
 
[21]  Davidson, M.J. & Burke, R.J. (eds) (1994). Women in Management: Current Research Issues (London: Paul Chapman Publishing).
 
[22]  Eagly, A.H. & Johnson, B.T. (1990). Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis, Psychological Bulletin 108: 223-256.
 
[23]  Ferrario, M. (1994). Women as Mnagerial Leaders, in M.J. Davison and R.J. Burke (eds), Women in Management: Current Research Issues (London: Paul Chapman Publishing).
 
[24]  Fullan, M. (2000). Leadership for the Twenty-First Century, in M. Fullan (ed.), The Jossey-Bass Rader on Educational Leadership (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass), 156-163.
 
[25]  Hall, V. (1997). Dusting off the Phoenix, Educational management and Administration 25(3): 209-324.
 
[26]  Joy, L. (1998). Why Are Women Underrepresented in Public School Administration? An Empirical Test of Promotion Discrimination, Economics of Education review, 17(2): 193-204.
 
[27]  Kirkwood, J. (2009), Motivational Factors in a Push-Pull Theory of Entrepreneurship, Gender in Management: An International Journal 24(5): 253-254.
 
[28]  Knight, P. & Trowler, P. (2001). Department Leadership in Higher Education: New Directions for Communities of Practice (Buckingham: Open University Press).
 
[29]  Kousez, J. & Posner, B. (1990). Leadership Practices Inventory (L.P.I): A Self-Assessment and Analysis (San Diego, C.A: Pfeiffer).
 
[30]  Maxwell, C.J. (1998). The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You (Nashville, T.N: Thomas Nelson).
 
[31]  Mosley, D.C. Meggision, L.C. & Pietri, P.H. (2001). Supervisory Management (Cincinnati, OH: Thomson Learning).
 
[32]  Newman, M.T. (2004). Practitioners’ Meanings of School Leadership: Case Studies on Jamacian High School Principals, DEd thesis, Faculty of Education, Griffith University.
 
[33]  Ozga, J. (ed.) (1993). Women in Educational Management (Buckingham: Open University Press).
 
[34]  Park, D. (1966). Gender Role, Decision Style and Leadership Style, Women in Management Review, 118(8): 13-17.
 
[35]  Pounder, J.S. (2001). ‘New Leadership’ and University Organizational Effectiveness: Exploring the Relationship, Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 22(6): 281-290.
 
[36]  Quinn, R.E. Faerman, S.R. Thompson, M.P. & McGrath, M.R. (1990). Becoming a Master Manager: A Competency Framework (Toronto, ON: John Wiley & Sons).
 
[37]  Robbins, S.P. (2003). Organizational Behaviour, 10th edition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Educational).
 
[38]  Rosener, J.B. (1990). Way Women Lead, Harvard Business Review 68:6:119-125.
 
[39]  Shakeshaft, C. (1989). Gender Equity in Schools, in C.A. Capper (ed.) Educational Administration in a Pluralistic Society (Albang, NY: State University of New York Press), 87-109.
 
[40]  Thompson, M.D. (2000). Gender, Leadership Orientation and Effectiveness: Testing the Theoretical Models of Bolman and Deal and Quinn, Sex roles 42(11-12): 969992.
 
[41]  Valentine, S. & Godkin, L. (2000). Supervisor Gender, Leadership Style and Perceived Job Design, Women in Management Review (15(3): 117-129.
 
[42]  Vikanas, T. & Carton, G. (1993). Competencies of Australian Women in Management, Women in Management Review, 8(30): 31-35.
 
[43]  Weirich, H. & Koontz, H. (1993). Management: A global perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill.