American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Issues and Challenges in Cross-Border in Higher Education: The Sub-Saharan (SSA) Experience

Nkechi Okoli1,

1Educational Foundations, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: January 25, 2013

Cite this paper:
Nkechi Okoli. Issues and Challenges in Cross-Border in Higher Education: The Sub-Saharan (SSA) Experience. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/education-1-1-3


This study focuses on the poor and deteriorating quality of education in the Third World countries in relation to Cross-border in higher education (CBHE), as a result of colonisation and globalisation. By whatever standards, be they macroeconomic or social variable, the situation has been precipitous retrogression. Debt servicing obligation is on the increase. The subject is approached by application of conceptual analysis of colonialism, human capital theories, globalisation, and internationalisation. The emerging issues of participation, mobility, the growth of private institutions, finance & quality and consequent challenges in area of digital divide, etc on the region are historically analysed. Findings reveal that participation and mobility are lopsided, Africa’s talented brains are selected; they leave and never come back. Private institutions are on the increase and exorbitant fees are charged. Inequalities loom, only the rich send their children to school. The paper recommends accommodation of countries not benefiting from CBHE.

Cross-border in Higher Education (CBHE) Issues and Challenges Colonialism Globalisation Sub-Saharan Africa

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Aker, J. C. & Mbiti, M. (2010). Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa. [Online] Available:
[3]  Allen, I. E. & Seaman, J. (2007). Online Nation: Five Years of Growth in Online Learning. Massachusetts: The Sloans Cosortium.
[4]  Devesh, K. & McHale, J. (2005). Give Us Your Best and Brightest. The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.
[5]  Fafunwa, A. B. (1991). A History of Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NPS
[6]  Fagerlind, A. & Saha, I.J. (1989). Education and National Development: A Comparative Perspective. New Delhi: Pergamon Press.
[7]  Fagerlind, A and Saga, I.J. (1997). Education and Developments. New Delhi: Reed Educational Professionals Publishing
[8]  Glanz, J. (2001) Trolling for Brains in International Waters in World Bank (2002). Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education. Washington D.C.: World Bank
[9]  Gottheil, F. M. (1997). On an Economic Theory. [Online] Available:
[10]  Human Development Report (1996). Rising Inequality and the Effects of Globalization in Khor (2000). Globalisation and the South: Some Critical Issues. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.
[11]  Karky, Ramesh (2009). Globalisation and Least Developed States in Nweze, C.E. (2009). (ed.) Contemporary Issues on Public International and Comparative Law: Essays in Honour of Professor Christian Nwachukwu Okeke. Florida: Vandeplas Publishing
[12]  Knight J. (2003). GATS, Trade and Higher Education: Perspective 2003. London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.
[13]  Macgregor, K. (2008). South Africa: Private University Status [Online] Available: http://www.worlduniverseviews
[14]  Manganjira, M. & Rugimbana, R. (2009). Understand International Student Mobility: What Motivates African Choices. [Online] Available:
[15]  Muyale-Manenji, F. (1994). The Effects of Globalisation on Culture in Africa in the Eyes of an African Woman. [Online] Available:
[16] /wcc/what/jpc/cfffglob.html
[17]  Obanya, Pai (2004). The Dilemma of Education in Africa. Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books
[18]  Pillay (2008). Higher Education Funding Frameworks in SADC. in P. Kotecha (ed.) Towards a Common Future: Higher Education in the SADC Region. Research Findings from Four SARUA Studies (Study Series 2008), Johannesburg: SARUA.
[19]  Psacharopoupulos & Woodhall (1997) in Fagerlind, A. and Saga, I.J. (1997) Education and Developments New Delhi: Reed Educational Professionals Publishing Ltd
[20]  Schultz, T. (1961). Human Needs to Approach in life in Fagerlind, A. & Saha, I.J. (1989). Education and National Development: A Comparative Perspective New Delhi: Pergamon Press.
[21]  Smith, Adams (1970). An Inquiry into the Nature and Cause of the Wealth of Nations, London: Dent & Sons Everyman’s Library.
[22]  Tebeje A. Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. International Development Research Council (IDRC), 2005. [Online] Available:
[23] DO_TOPIC.html
[24]  Teichier, U. & Yagci, Y. (2009). Changing Challenges of Academic Work: Concepts and Observations in Meek, V. L., Teichier, U. & Kearney (eds.) Higher Education Research and Innovation: Changing Dynamics Kassel, Germany: International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.
[25]  UNESCO Institute of Statistics Information Bulletin (2009). In the Southern Africa Development Community [Online] Available:
[26]  Wallerstein, I. (1974-1989). The Modern World System (3 volumes). New York: New York Academic Press.
[27]  World Bank (2009). Accelerating Catch-up: Tertiary Education for Growth in SSA. Washington D.C.: World Bank.