American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12A), 45-53
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12A-8
Open AccessResearch Article

Teaching Professionalism and the Feminisation Debate in Pakistan

Shabana Shamaas Gul Khattak1,

1Middlesex University London

Pub. Date: December 31, 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teacher Education: Issues and Challenges)

Cite this paper:
Shabana Shamaas Gul Khattak. Teaching Professionalism and the Feminisation Debate in Pakistan. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12A):45-53. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12A-8


This study focuses on teaching professionalism with special reference to its feminisation debate. Professionalism and professional development of teachers is an important discussion to unpack perspectives as to its definition in order to understand the entry points of professionalism and its feminisation arguments. Furthermore this research contains a discussion and analysis regarding the factors that influenced in shaping of teaching profession and professional development in Pakistan and the theories behind the present concept of feminisation of teaching professionals in social set-up. There are many hypothesis involved in the creation of teaching professionalism in Pakistan however for the purpose of this study only historical, political, religious and socio-cultural factors of teaching professionalism are evaluated. The study concludes that the British colonised education moulded the professional development of teachers towards English education, religion and socio-culture forces played a pivotal role in its feminisation context while it is the most respectable and desirable profession for women nevertheless last choice for merit-worthy capable people due to lack of standards and credibility of educational provision and low-level of training skills; uneven practices of recruitment and promotions and low salaries packages.

professionalism teaching professional development feminisation

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