American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(12), 1225-1229
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-12-15
Open AccessArticle

Flipping the Classroom for Pharmacokinetics

Jennifer Schneider1, , Irene Munro1 and Siva Krishnan2

1School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia

2Deakin Learning Futures, Deakin University, Burwood VIC 3125, Australia

Pub. Date: December 19, 2014

Cite this paper:
Jennifer Schneider, Irene Munro and Siva Krishnan. Flipping the Classroom for Pharmacokinetics. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(12):1225-1229. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-15

Abstract

A flipped classroom approach was implemented in a pharmacokinetics course to encourage active student learning and enable the development of higher level learning skills. Students viewed written and/or audio-visual recordings of content materials prior to active face-to-face engagement where they then applied their learning through the evaluation and analysis of different clinical scenarios, calculation of dosing regimens, and synthesis of information to create resources. Student outcomes for the flipped pharmacokinetics course in 2013 were compared with student outcomes for the traditionally taught pharmacokinetics course in 2012 which acted as control. Student evaluations of the course showed significantly stronger satisfaction with their learning experience by students in the innovative 2013 course compared to students in the traditional 2012 control (P=0.01).Although students in the 2013 cohort strongly agreed that flipping the classroom enabled them to apply their learning and that it had a positive effect on their learning, there was no significant difference in the major assessment results between the 2013 and 2012 cohorts.

Keywords:
flipped classroom student-centred learning higher level learning skills

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Persky, A.M., “The Impact of Team-Based Learning on a Foundational Pharmacokinetics Course,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2012, 76(2), p. 31.
 
[2]  Jones, C.E., Dyar, S.C., and McKeever, A.L., “Small-Team Active Learning in an Integrated Pharmacokinetics Course Series,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2012,76(8), p. 153.
 
[3]  Garside, C., “Look who's talking: A comparison of lecture and group discussion teaching strategies in developing critical thinking skills,” Communication Education, 1996, 45(3), p. 212.
 
[4]  Persky, A.M. and Pollack, G.M., “A Hybrid Jigsaw Approach to Teaching Renal Clearance Concepts,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2009,73(3), p. 49.
 
[5]  Dupuis, R.E. and Persky, A.M., “Use of case-based learning in a clinical pharmacokinetics course,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2008, 72(2), p. 29.
 
[6]  Smith, L., Krass, I., Sainsbury, E., and Rose, G., “Pharmacy students' approaches to learning in undergraduate and graduate entry programs,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2010, 74(6), p. 106.
 
[7]  Weaver, R.R. and Jiang, Q., “Classroom Organization and Participation: College Students' Perceptions,” The Journal of Higher Education, 2005, 76(5), p. 570-601.
 
[8]  Howard, J.R. and Henney, A.L., “Student participation and instructor gender in the mixed-age college classroom,” The Journal of Higher Education, 1998, 69(4), p. 384-405.
 
[9]  Howard, J.R., James III, G.H., and Taylor, D.R., “The Consolidation of Responsibility in the Mixed-age College Classroom,” Teaching Sociology, 2002, 30(2), p. 214-234.
 
[10]  Fritschner, L.M., “Inside the Undergraduate College Classroom: Faculty and Students Differ on the Meaning of Student Participation,” The Journal of Higher Education, 2000,71(3), p. 342-362.
 
[11]  Bergmann, J. and Sams, A., Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Classroom Every Day,International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, US, 2012 , pp. 1-100.
 
[12]  Prensky, M., “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1,”On the Horizon, 2001,9(5), p. 1-6.
 
[13]  MIMS. 2013; Available from: http://www.mims.com.au.
 
[14]  Krathwohl, D.R., “A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview,”Theory into Practice, 2002,41(4): p. 212-218.
 
[15]  Anderson, L.W., Krathwol, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., and Wittrock, M.C., A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Longmans, New York, 2001.
 
[16]  Kidd, R.S. and Stamatakis, M.K., “Comparison of Students' Performance in and Satisfaction With a Clinical Pharmacokinetics Course Delivered Live and by Interactive Videoconferencing,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2006,70(1), p. 10.
 
[17]  Chisholm, M.A., Miller, A.W., Spruill, W.J., Cobb, H.H., Reinhardt, B.O., Terry, A.V., Reese, L.R., and Wade, W.E., “Influence of Interactive Videoconferencing on the Performance of Pharmacy Students and Instructors,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2000,64, p. 152-158.
 
[18]  McFarland, D. and Hamilton, D., “Factors Affecting Student Performance and Satisfaction Online Versus Traditional Course Delivery,”The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 2005,46(2), p. 25-32.
 
[19]  Ried, L.D. and McKenzie, M., “A Preliminary Report on the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students in a Distance Education Program,”American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2004, 68(3), p. 65.
 
[20]  MacLaughlin, E.J., Supernaw, R.B., and Howard, K.A., “Impact of Distance Learning Using Videoconferencing Technology on Student Performance,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2004, 68(3), p. 58.
 
[21]  Mobley, W.C., “Adaptation of a Hypertext Pharmaceutics Course for Videoconference-Based Distance Education,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2002, 66, p. 140-143.