American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(7), 503-512
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-7-12
Open AccessArticle

Humor Creator and the Audience - A Multi-dimensional Model Supported by In-vivo Methodology

Varda Inglis1, , Sima Zach1, and Shlomo Kaniel2,

1Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel

2School of Education, Bar-Ilan University,Tel Aviv, Israel

Pub. Date: July 04, 2014

Cite this paper:
Varda Inglis, Sima Zach and Shlomo Kaniel. Humor Creator and the Audience - A Multi-dimensional Model Supported by In-vivo Methodology. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(7):503-512. doi: 10.12691/education-2-7-12

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to reevaluate the multi-dimensional model of humor creation, which is comprised of three dimensions: humor motivation, humor cognition, and humor communication, using in vivo (natural setting) methodology. Thirty-four lecturers from colleges and universities completed a questionnaire. Additionally, 1530 students observed these lecturers and evaluated their sense of humor. Judges also evaluated the degree of humor in 750 video clips excerpted from 91 filmed lessons taught by the lecturers. Two path-analysis models substantiated the multidimensional model. A person's role – humor creator or humor receiver – was the strongest variable explaining the variance in humor creation. This study suggests that not only the humor creator, but also the humor receiver, contributes to variance in humor creation. In addition, the study expands the toolbox of humor measurement.

Keywords:
in vivo methodology humor humor creation humor evaluation humor creator humor receiver social phenomenon Israel

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Apter, M.J., (1991). A structural-phenomenology of play. In J. H. Kerr & Michael J. Apter (eds.), Adult play: A reversal theory approach, (13-29). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.
 
[2]  Apter, M.J., (Ed.). (2001). Motivational styles in everyday life: A guide to reversal theory. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
 
[3]  Bippus, A.M. (2003). Humor motives, qualities, and reactions in recalled conflict episodes. Western Journal of Communication, 67, 413-426.
 
[4]  Bippus, A.M. & Dunbar, N.E. (2011, July). Partners’ agreement about humor frequency and style. Paper presented at the International Society for Humor Studies Conference, Boston.
 
[5]  Booth-Butterfield, S. & Booth-Butterfield. M. (1991). Individual differences in the communication of humorous messages. Southern Communication Journal, 56, 205-218.
 
[6]  Brownell, Hiram H., Dee Michel, John Powelson & Howard Gardner. 1983. Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain Lang Usage, 18, 20-27.
 
[7]  Cann, Arnie & Lawrence G. Calhoun. 2001. Perceived personality associations with differences in sense of humor: Stereotype of hypothetical others with high or low senses of humor. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 14, 117-130.
 
[8]  Cline, T. W., Altsech, M. B., & Kellaris, J. J. (2003). When Does Humor Enhance Or Inhibit Ad Responses?: The Moderating Role of the Need for Humor. Journal of Advertising, 32, 31-46.
 
[9]  Cook, N.D. (2002). Tone of voice and mind: The connections between intonation, emotion, cognition and consciousness. Amsterdam/Philadelpia: Cureton, E. E., John Benjamins Publishing.
 
[10]  Deckers, L. (1993). On the validity of weight-judging paradigm for the study of humor. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 6, 43-56.
 
[11]  Deckers, L. & Buttram R.T. (1990). Humor as a response to incongruities within or between schemata. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 3, 53-64.
 
[12]  Dunbar, K. 2001. What scientific thinking reveals about the nature of cognition. In K. Crowley, C.D. Schunn, & Takeshi (Eds.). Designing for science: Implications from everyday classroom and professional settings, (115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Elbaum.
 
[13]  Feingold, A. & Mazzella, R. (1991). Psychometric intelligence and verbal humor ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 427-435.
 
[14]  Feingold, A. & Mazzella, R. (1993). Preliminary validation of multidimensional model of wittiness. Journal of Personality, 61, 439-456.
 
[15]  Freud, S. (1960) [1905]. Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. New York: Norton.
 
[16]  Frymier, A.B., Wanzer M.B. & Wojtaszczyk, A.M. (2007, November). Assessing student perceptions of inappropriate and appropriate teacher humor. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Communication Association, Chicago, Illinois, Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov ED = 499080.
 
[17]  Galinkin, M.B. (2000). The spontaneous humor production of four intellectually precoscious preschoolers: A window into the mind. Dissertation-Abstract International-Section A: Humanities and Social Science, 60, 2361.
 
[18]  Gardner, H., Ling, P.K., Flamm, L., & J. Silverman 1975. Comprehension and appreciation of humorous material following brain damage. Brain, 98, 399-412.
 
[19]  Geles, L. (2006). How to read people according to their speech, voice, body and facial language. Translated from English by I. Miller &. Kineret Zmora-Bitan, Dvir Publishers. Hebrew
 
[20]  Gruner, C.R. (1978). Understanding laughter: The working of wit and humor. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
 
[21]  Gruner, Charles R. (1997). The game of humor: A comprehensive theory of why we laugh. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
 
[22]  Howrigan, D.P. & MacDonald, K.B. (2008). Humor as a mental fitness indicator Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 652-666.
 
[23]  Hu, L.T. & Bentler, P.M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling. Concepts, issues, and applications, 76-99. London: Sage.
 
[24]  Jackson, D. L. (2003). Revisiting sample size and number of parameter estimates: some support for the N:q hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling, 10 (1), 128-141.
 
[25]  Johnson, A. & McCord, D.M. (2010). Relating sense of humor to the Five Factor Theory personality domains and facets. American Journal of Psychological Research, 6, 32-40.
 
[26]  Jorgensen, J. (1996). The function of sarcastic irony in speech. Journal of Pragmatics, 26, 613-634.
 
[27]  Kohler, G. & Ruch, W. (1996). Sources of variance in current sense of humor inventories: How much substance, how much method variance? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 363-397.
 
[28]  Koestler, A. (1964). The art of creation. London: Hutchinson.
 
[29]  Kruger, A. (1996). The nature of humor in human nature: Cross-cultural commonalties. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 9, 235-242.
 
[30]  Latour, B. (2000). Pandora's hope: Essays on the reality of science studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 
[31]  Lefcourt, H.M. (2001). Humor-The psychology of living buoyantly. New York: Kluwer Academic, Plenum.
 
[32]  Long, D.L. & Graesser. A.C. (1988). Wit and humor in discourse processing. Discourse Processes, 11, 35-60.
 
[33]  MacCallum, R.C., Browne, M.W. & Sugawara, H.M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130-149.
 
[34]  Martin, R.A. (1998). Approaches to the sense of humor: An historical review. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor, 15-60. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
 
[35]  Martin, R.A. (2007). The psychology of humor: An integrative approach. London: Elsevier Academic Press.
 
[36]  Martin, R.A. & Kuiper, N.A. (1999). Daily occurrence of laughter: Relationships with age, gender, and Type A personality. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 12, 355-384.
 
[37]  McCrae, R.R. & John, O.P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175-215.
 
[38]  Mehu, M. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2008). Relationship between smiling and laughter in humans (homo sapiens): testing the power asymmetry hypothesis. Folia Primatol, 79, 269-280.
 
[39]  Merolla, A.J. (2006). Decoding ability and humor production. Communication Quarterly, 54, 175-189.
 
[40]  Meyers, J.C. (2000). Humor as a double-edged sword: Four functions of humor in communication. Communication Theory, 10, 310-331.
 
[41]  Norrick, N.R. (1986). A frame-theoretical analysis of verbal humor. Semiotica, 60, 225-245.
 
[42]  Norrick, N.R. (2003). Issues in conversational joking. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, 1333-1359.
 
[43]  North, M.S., Todorov, A. & Osherson, D.N. (2010). Inferring the preferences of others from spontaneous, low-emotional facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Available online 25 June 2010.
 
[44]  Provine, R.R. (2000). Laughter: A scientific investigation. New York: Viking.
 
[45]  Provine R.R. & Emmorey, K. (2006). Laughter among deaf signers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11, 403-409.
 
[46]  Provine, R.R. & Fisher, K.R. (1989). Laughing, smiling, and talking: Relation to sleeping and social context in humans. Ethology, 83, 295-305.
 
[47]  Ritchie, G. (2001). Current directions in computational humour. Artificial Intelligence Review, 16, 119-135.
 
[48]  Robinson, D.T. & Smith-Lovin, L. (2001). Getting a laugh: Gender, status, and humor in task discussions. Social Forces, 80, 123-158.
 
[49]  Saroglou, V. & Scariot, C. (2002). Humor styles questionnaire: Personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students. European Journal of Personality, 16, 43-54.
 
[50]  Scherer, K.R., Banse, R., & Walbott, H.G. (2001). Emotion inferences from vocal expression correlate across languages and cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 76-92.
 
[51]  Suls, J.M. (1983). Cognitive processes in humor appreciation. In P.E. McGee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of humor research, Vol. 1: Basic issues, 39-57. New York: Springer-Verlag.
 
[52]  Turner, R.G. (1980). Self-monitoring and humor production. Journal of Personality, 48, 163-172.
 
[53]  Vernon, P.A., Martin, R.A., Schermer, J.A. & Mackie, A. (2008). A behavioral genetic investigation of humor styles and their correlations with the Big-5 personality dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1116-1125.
 
[54]  Wanzer, M., Booth-Butterfield, M. & Booth-Butterfield, S. (1995). The funny people: A source-orientation to the communication of humor. Communication Quarterly, 43, 142-153.
 
[55]  Weston, R., & Gore, P.A. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist. 34, 719.
 
[56]  Wyer, R.S. (2004). Social comprehension and judgment: The role of situation models, narratives, and implicit theories. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
[57]  Zajdman, A. (1995). Humorous face-threatening acts: Humor as strategy. Journal of Pragmatics, 23, 325-339.
 
[58]  Ziv, A. (1979). Sociometry of humor: Objectifying the subjective. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 49, 97-98.
 
[59]  Ziv, A., & Gadish, O. (1990). The disinhibiting effects of humor: Aggressive and affective responses. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 3, 247-257.
 
[60]  Zweyer, K., Velker, B. & Ruch, W. (2004). Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research. 17, 85-119.