American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(4), 233-239
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-4-9
Open AccessArticle

Comparative Study on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Teaching in Kenya and the United States of America; USA

Catherine M. Aurah1, and Tom J. McConnell2

1Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kakamega, Kenya

2Ball State University, Department of Biology, University Way, Muncie, IN, USA

Pub. Date: April 09, 2014

Cite this paper:
Catherine M. Aurah and Tom J. McConnell. Comparative Study on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Teaching in Kenya and the United States of America; USA. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(4):233-239. doi: 10.12691/education-2-4-9


This study examined and compared science teacher efficacy beliefs of elementary pre-service teachers in Kenya and U.S.A. by surveying 168 Kenyan and 189 US Pre-service teachers through a cross-sectional survey research design. Data were collected using STEBI-B scale, an inventory developed by by Enochs and Riggs (1990), with a reported Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients as 0.90 and 0.76 for Personal Science Teacher Efficacy (PSTE) and Science Teacher Outcome Expectancy (STOE), respectively. Data were analysed both descriptively (means and standard deviations) and inferentially using a 2 x 2 factorial MANOVA. The dependent variables were PSTE and STOE scores. The independent variables were participant gender and country of origin. Results indicate a significant interaction between gender and country. There was a significant main effect for country but not for gender. With a significant MANOVA, follow-up univariate ANOVA tests indicated a statistically significant difference in the PSTE with USA scoring higher on average and a significant difference in the STOE score with Kenya scoring higher. Implications for teacher education programs are discussed.

self-efficacy science education teacher education

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Allinder, R. M. (1994). The relationship between efficacy and the instructional practices of special education teachers and consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17, 86-95.
[2]  Ashton, P. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm for effective teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 35(5): 28-32.
[3]  Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.
[4]  Balunuz, M., Jarrett, O. S., & Bulunuz, N. (2001). Growth of science interest and confidence among Turkish pre-service elementary teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research of Science Teaching, St Louis.
[5]  Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from Psych Articles.
[6]  Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
[7]  Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[8]  Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health.) San Diego: Academic Press.
[9]  Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
[10]  Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An Agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26.
[11]  Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (1997). Application of self-efficacy theory to the career assessment of women. Journal of Career Assessment, 5, 383-402.
[12]  Brand, B. R., & Wilkins, J. L. M. (2007). Using self-efficacy as a construct for evaluating science and mathematics methods courses. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18, 297-317.
[13]  Brickhouse, N. W., Lowery, P., & Schultz, K. (2000). What kind of girls does science? The construction of school science identities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 441-458.
[14]  Britner, S. L. & Pajares, F. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, race, and gender in middle school science. Journal of women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 7, 271-285.
[15]  Britner, S. L. & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(5), 485-449.
[16]  Brotman, J. S. & Moore, F. M. (2008). Girls and science: A review of four themes in science education literature. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, 971-1002.
[17]  Kahle, J. B. (2004). Will girls be left behind? Gender difference and accountability. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 961- 969.
[18]  Cakiroglu, J., Cakiroglu, E., & Boone, W. J. (2005). Pre-service teacher self-efficacy beliefs regarding science teaching: A comparison of pre-service teachers in Turkey and the USA. Science Educator, 14, 31!40.
[19]  Cakiroglu, J., & Boone, W. J. (2002). Preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and their conceptions of photosynthesis and inheritance, Journal of Elementary Science Education, 14, 1-14.
[20]  Campbell, J.(1996). A comparison of teacher efficacy for pre and in- service teachers in Scotland and America.Education, 117, 2-11.
[21]  Cantrell, P., Young, S., & Moore, A. (2003). Factors affecting science teaching efficacy of pre service teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14, 177-192.
[22]  Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473-490.
[23]  Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[24]  Coldarci, T. (1992). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. Journal of Experimental Education.
[25]  Gencer A. S. and Cakiroglu, J. (2007). Turkish Pre-service Science Teachers' Self-efficacy Beliefs Regarding Science Teaching and Their Beliefs About Classroom Management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 664-675.
[26]  Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582.
[27]  Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(1), 63-69.
[28]  Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741-756.
[29]  Kupermintz, H. ( 2002). Affective and cognitive factors as aptitude resources in high school science achievement. Educational Assessment, 8, 123-137.
[30]  Lau, S., & Roeser, R.W. (2002). Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students’ situational engagement and achievement in science. Educational Assessment, 8, 139-162.
[31]  Lin. H., Gorrell, J. & Taylor, J. (2002). Influence of culture and education on U.S. and Taiwan pre-service teachers’ efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(1), 37- 46.
[32]  Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct.Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.
[33]  Pajares, F. (1997). Current direction in self-efficacy research. In M. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement Vol. 10, pp.1-49. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
[34]  Pajares, F. (2005). Gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy beliefs. In A. M. Gallagher & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach (pp. 294-315). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[35]  Palmer, D.H. (2006). Sources of self-efficacy in a science methods course for primary teacher education students. Research in Science Education, Online First, 1-17.
[36]  Philipp, R. A. (2007). Mathematics teachers’ beliefs and affect. In F. K. Lester, Jr. (Ed.) Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 257-315). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
[37]  Rayburn, A. M. (2009). Differences in females’ math and science self-efficacy based on gender-type socialization and gender role-type. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database (UMI No 1470415).
[38]  Rice, D. C., & Roychoudhury, A. (2003). Preparing more confident Pre-service elementary science teacher: One elementary science methods teacher’s self study. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14, 97-126.
[39]  Riggs, I. M., & Enochs, L. G. (1990). Toward the development of an elementary teacher’s science teaching efficacy beliefs instrument. Science Education, 74(6), 625-637.
[40]  Scantebury, K. & Baker, D. (2007). Gender issues in science education research: Remembering where the differences lie. In S. Abell & N. Lederman (Eds), Handbook of Research on science education (pp.257-286). Mahwah, Nj: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[41]  Scribner, J. (1999). Teacher efficacy and teacher professional learning: Implications for school leaders. Journal of School Leadership, 9, 209-234.
[42]  Simpkins, S. D., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Math and science motivation: A longitudinal examination of the links between choices and beliefs. Developmental Psychology, 42 (1), 70-83.
[43]  Tschannen - Moran M, Woolfolk Hoy A (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of vice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education. 23: 944-956.
[44]  Tschannen-Moran, M., and McMaster, P. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy: Four professional development formats and their relationship to self-efficacy and implementation of a new teaching strategy. Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 228-245.
[45]  Wheatley, K. F. (2005). The case for reconceptualizing teacher efficacy research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(7), 747-766.
[46]  Wright, A. B, & Holttum, S. (2010). Gender identity, research self-efficacy, and research intention in trainee clinical psychologists in UK. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. Advance Online Publication.
[47]  Zeldin, A. L. & Britner, S. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). A comparative study of the self-efficacy beliefs of successful men and women in mathematics, science, and technology career. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, 1036-1058.