American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(9), 580-586
DOI: 10.12691/education-9-9-4
Open AccessReview Article

Teacher Generated Pamphlets as a Feasible Covid-19 Learning Alternative in Uganda: A Review of Existing Global and Domestic Pandemic Pedagogies

Sande Erunao Muwanguzi1, , Yuda Taddeo Kaahwa1 and Nicholas Itaaga1

1College of Education and External Studies, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Pub. Date: September 22, 2021

Cite this paper:
Sande Erunao Muwanguzi, Yuda Taddeo Kaahwa and Nicholas Itaaga. Teacher Generated Pamphlets as a Feasible Covid-19 Learning Alternative in Uganda: A Review of Existing Global and Domestic Pandemic Pedagogies. American Journal of Educational Research. 2021; 9(9):580-586. doi: 10.12691/education-9-9-4


Following today’s global volatile Covid-19 pandemic era, especially for the education sector in general and education institutions in particular, governments and other related stakeholders are already heavily embarking on innovating various digital platforms that can embrace distance learning for the millions of children that were sent home as well as survival mechanisms for privately remunerated teachers, whose salaries were heavily affected. In Uganda however, configuration of adequate advocacies aimed at averting the pervasive financial starvation among privately contracted teachers has been overshadowed. This literature review-based paper first reviewed the existing global pandemic pedagogies, before it surveyed the pandemic pedagogies implemented in Uganda, in view of assessing how these pedagogies have informed a pedagogically and economically feasible alternative long distance learning during the Covid-19 era. Lastly, the study discussed the feasibility of teacher generated pamphlets as a domesticated and thus redeeming pandemic pedagogy. The study found out that, since majority of the adopted Pandemic pedagogies globally or even in Uganda, are digital platforms that involve use of digital tools, they were not only found to be facing serious hiccups related to accessibility, connectivity and usability, apparently due to the pervasive digital divide in many developed and developing countries, but did not also address teachers’ financial starvation. The study therefore concluded that teacher generated Pamphlets can be feasible in overcoming such hiccups, and can support teachers financially during the pandemic closure of schools.

economics of education sociology of education teacher generated pamphlets Covid-19 alternative learning domestication of digital education

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  UNESCO (2020). Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM). The impact of COVID-19 on the cost of achieving SDG4. Inclusion and Educall: all means all. Available at
[2]  Ssebwami, J. (2020). Full speech: education minister Janet Museveni orders on school term, tertiary institutions. Post media (PmL) Daily. Available at:
[3]  Mukhaye, D. (2021). Registration for COVID-19 relief cash starts today. Daily monitor, Wednesday, June, 2021.
[4]  Tumwesige, J. (2020). COVID-19 educational distraction and response: Rethinking E-learning in Uganda. Konrad and engraver stiffing.
[5]  Qazi, A., Nasser, K., & Qazi, J. (2020). Conventional to online education during COVID-19 pandemic: Did developed and underdeveloped nations cope a like. Econ papers (children and youth services review), 119 (c).
[6]  Kakumirizi, M. (2020). Leaders of the national private education motivations association (NPEIA) appears to parliament. Daily monitor, Monday, June, 2020.
[7]  Kannamani, R. (2020). The challenges to the private school teachers due to COVID-19 crisis. Journal of the Social Sciences, Vol. 48(4).
[8]  Musinguzi, B. (2020). Teachers find alternative income sources during COVID-19 lockdown. Daily monitor, Wednesday, October, 2020.
[9]  Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation, New York: Wiley.
[10]  Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (4th Ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications
[11]  Heba, M. (2019). Pragmatism as a supportive paradigm for the mixed research Approach: Conceptualizing the ontological, epistemological, and axiological stances of pragmatism. Canadian Centre of Science and Education, 12, 1913-9012.
[12]  Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panaca in the time of COVID-19 crises. Journal of Educational Technology, 49(1), 5-22.
[13]  Educational international (2020). COVID-19 and education: How education unions are responding survey report. Available at https://issuucom/educationinternational/docs/2020-COVID-19-servey-report-eng-final.
[14]  UNESCO – UNICEF. World Bank survey, May – June (2020). Available at
[15]  Pokhrel, S. & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher education for the future, 8(1), pp. 133-141.
[16]  Doucet, A., Netolicky, D., Timmers, K., & Tuscano, F. J. (2020). Thinking about pedagogy in an unfolding pandemic (an independent report on approaches to distance learning during COVID-19 school closure). Work of education international and UNESCO.
[17]  Petrie, C. (2020) Sportlight: Quality education for all during Covid-19 crisis (HundrED Research Report #01) United Nations. Https://
[18]  Murgatrotd, S. (2020). COVID-19 and online learning, Albert, Canada.
[19]  Sintema, M. A. (2020). Learning from the COVID-19 home–schooling experience: Listening to pupils, parents/careers and teachers. Improve.sch. Vol. 23, PP. 209-222.
[20]  Gudmundsdottir, G. B., & Hathaway, D. M. (2020). We always make it work: Teachers’ Agency in the time of crisis. J. Tech Teach. Educ. Vol. 28, PP. 239-250.
[21]  Trust, T. & Whalen, J. (2020). Should teachers be trained in emergency remote teaching? Lesson learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Tech. Teach. Educ. Vol. 28, PP. 189-199.
[22]  Lepp, L., Aaviku, T., Leijen, L., Pedaste, M., Saks, K. (2021). Teaching during COVID-19: The decisions made in teaching. Educ.Sci. Vol. 11 (47).
[23]  Devkota, N. M. (2021). Economic impact of COVID-19 on high school teachers; An assessment of teachers in private high schools from the Kathmandu Metropolitan, Nepal. International Journal of Management Studies, vol. 2(1), pp. 117-127.
[24]  Guide (2020). Student learning facilitation guide, 2077. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal government, ministry of education, science and technology. From
[25]  Carvalho, S. & Hares, L. (2020). The economic shock of COVID-19 may hit private school and contract teachers hardest. Independent research for global prosperity.
[26]  Ahmed, J., Sritharan, G. & Nasir, N. N. A. M. (2015). The effectiveness of video and pamphlets in influencing youth on environmental education, Malaysian Journal of Communication Jalid, Vol.31, No.1, PP.281-296.
[27]  United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Protect your family from lead in your home and how to protect your family from lead-based paint hazards. https://govofficial website (EPA).
[28]  Sidonia, A., Ochieng, D. & Waiswa, C. (2019). Pastoral education the missing in Uganda education system. In Educational Research and Reviews, vol. 14(7), PP. 240-253.
[29]  Ssenkusu, P., Ssempala, C., & Mitana, J. M. V. (2021). How Covid-19 pandemic might lead to appreciating pedagogies driven by the multiplicity of intelligence: A case of the Ugandan experience. International Journal of Educational Research Review, Vol 6(4), 355-368.
[30]  Altinyelken, K.H., (2010). Pedagogical renewal in sub Saharan Africa: The case of Uganda. In Taylor & Francis group, PP. 151-171.
[31]  BBC monitoring (2016). Media Guide, Uganda Report. Available online:
[32]  The National Information Technology Survey (2018). The collaboration on international ICT policy for East and Southern Africa (CIPESA) sample of 2,400 individuals report available online: 20survey%20April%20/10thpdf.
[33]  Kumar, S. (2017). Teaching materials and teaching aids-1 (teaching material): https:// /318215081.
[34]  UNFPA (2018). Uganda’s youth population. Kampala , Uganda, Available at:
[35]  Paul, C. L., Redman, S. & Sanson-Fisher, R. W. (2003). Print material content and design: is it relevant to effectiveness? Health Education Research Theory and Practice, Vol. 18(2), pp. 181-190.
[36]  Nasaza, J. (2016). Developing Teaching Aids to improve the training delivery skills of Vocational students’ teachers. Unpublished Master thesis submitted to the Oslo and Akershus University College of applied sciences.
[37]  Komulainen, k., Naskali, p., Korhonen, m. & Keskitalo-Foley, s. (2011). Internal Entrepreneurship- aTrojan horse of the Neoliberal governance of education? Finish pre- and in-service teachers’ implementation of and resistance towards entrepreneurship education. Journal for critical education policy studies, 9(1), pp.341-374.
[38]  Muwanguzi, S. E., Itaaga, N., Musisi, B. (2021). Teachers’ enterprising pedagogical practices (TEPPS): meaning, effectiveness and justification in Uganda’s education institutions. American Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 9(7), PP. 457-464.
[39]  Blesta, G., Priestley, M., Robinson, S. (2015). The role of beliefs in teacher agency. Tech. Teach. Vol. 21, PP. 624-640.
[40]  Fives, H. & Buehl, M. M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the “messy” construct of teachers’ beliefs: what are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? In educational psychology hand book, Vol. 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual Factors: Harris, K.R., Grahams, S. Urdan, T., Eds.; American psychological association: Washington, DC, USA, PP. 471-499.
[41]  Raymond. A. M. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teacher’s mathematics beliefs and teaching practice. J. Res. Math. Educ. Vol. 28, PP. 550-576.
[42]  Yemini, M., Addi-Raccah, A. & Katarivas, K. (2014). I have a dream: school principals as entrepreneurs. In Educational management & leadership, pp. 1-15.
[43]  Kobakhidze, M. N. (2014). Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), PP.455-475.
[44]  Genza, G.M. & Musisi, B. (2018). Educational Entrepreneurship (EE): Delineating the domain and highlighting its importance and feasibility in educational management in Uganda. American Journal of educational Research, Vol. 6(1) pp.9-17.
[45]  Kosko, K. W. & Herbst, P. (2012). Evaluating teachers’ decisions in posing a proof problem. In proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the North American chapter of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (PMENA), Kalamazoo, MI, USA, PP. 1-4.
[46]  Epstein, J. L, Sheldon, S. (2019). The importance of evaluating programs of school, family and community partnerships. Aula Alberta. Vol. (48), PP. 31-42.