American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 426-430
DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-5
Open AccessCase Study

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) in Mathematics Learner’s Response towards Synchronous Online Class

Heidemae R. Remata1, and Laila S. Lomibao1

1University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Lapasan Highway, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Pub. Date: July 07, 2021

Cite this paper:
Heidemae R. Remata and Laila S. Lomibao. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) in Mathematics Learner’s Response towards Synchronous Online Class. American Journal of Educational Research. 2021; 9(7):426-430. doi: 10.12691/education-9-7-5


Developing basic mathematics skills for all children especially those who are diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and math disability is not easy. And the sudden shift from face-to-face classes to online instructional delivery due to the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has been a challenge to them. Hence, this qualitative descriptive-exploratory case study was undertaken to explore the response of a learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) with impairment in mathematics towards a synchronous online Orton-Gillingham Math intervention in terms of working behavior. The participant was chosen purposively based on the diagnosis, arithmetic calculation level, and unfamiliarity with the OG-Math intervention. The participant was taught using the OG-Math approach via an online platform for twice-a-week for 4 weeks. The online classes were recorded then transcribed with consent from the participant’s parent and school. The data were analyzed using trustworthy thematic analysis to ensure validity and reliability. The analysis revealed five (5) emerging themes namely symptoms of inattention, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, lowered vigilance, emotional understanding and reactivity, and active class participation. Despite the existence of these responses, the participant was still able to participate actively in synchronous online class and showed emotional competence. It can be concluded that learner-participant with ADHD-SLD with impairment in math can thrive in synchronous online class given her short attention span.

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specific learning disorder math disability multisensory approach concrete-representational-abstract progression working behavior Orton-Gillingham Math intervention

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Putri, R. S., Purwanto, A., Pramono, R., Asbari, M., Wijayanti, L. M., & Hyun, C. C. (2020). “Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online home learning: An explorative study of primary schools in Indonesia”. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 4809-4818.
[2]  Department of Education of The Republic of the Philippines Secretary Briones, L., “Adoption of the Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan for School Year 2020-2021 in the Light of the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency”, 012, s. 2020.
[3]  Marlina, R., Budiyono, & Usodo, B. (2019). “Shadow Supervisor Strategy on Student with ADHD in Mathematics Learning Activity for Inclusive Secondary Class of Elementary School”. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1227, 012016.
[4]  Platt, A. (2016). “ADHD and Math Disabilities: Cognitive Similarities and Instructional Interventions”. Teachadhd. Retrieved from
[5]  Youn, C. (2021). “Using Health Data to Provide Better Emotional Assistance to Children with ADHD”.
[6]  Harpin, V. A. (2005). “The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool to adult life”. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(SUPPL. 1), 2-8.
[7]  American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013
[8]  Brandon, M. (2012). “Effectiveness of The Hill Model of Instruction: A Program Evaluation of the Greenville Learning Center”. Retrieved from
[9]  Sheffield, B. B. (1991). “The structured flexibility of Orton-Gillingham”. Annals of Dyslexia, 41(1), 41-54.
[10]  Schunk, D. H. (1996). Learning theories. In Printice Hall Inc., New Jersey (Vol. 53, Issue 9).
[11]  Witzel, B. S. (2005). “Using CRA to Teach Algebra to Students with Math Difficulties in Inclusive Settings”. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 3(2), 12.
[12]  Bourgeois, F. S., Lippiatt, N. R., & Powell, M. S. (2015). “Introducing the concept of mechanical texture in comminution: The case of concrete recycling”. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 136, 7-14.
[13]  Chacko, A., Uderman, J., Feirsen, N., Bedard, A. C., & Marks, D. (2013). “Learning and cognitive disorders: Multidiscipline treatment approaches”. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22(3), 457-477.
[14]  Hashey, A. I., & Stahl, S. (2019). “Making Online Learning Accessible for Students With Disabilities”. Teaching Exceptional Children.
[15]  Grover, S., Goyal, S. K., Mehra, A., Sahoo, S., & Goyal, S. (2021). “A Survey of Parents of Children Attending the Online Classes During the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic”. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 88(3), 280.
[16]  Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). “Thematic Analysis: Striving to Meet the Trustworthiness Criteria”. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), 1-13.
[17]  Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. G. (1985). “Naturalistic inquiry”. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[18]  Cassell, C., & Symon, G. (2004). “Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research”.
[19]  Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke (2006) “Using thematic analysis in psychology”, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101.
[20]  Mesulam M-M. “Attention, confusional states, and neglect”. In: Mesulam MM, ed. Principles of behavioral neurology. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 1985:125-68.
[21]  Boddy, C.R. (2016), “Sample size for qualitative research”, Qualitative Market Research, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 426-432.
[22]  Creswell, J. W., Hanson, W. E., Clark Plano, V. L., & Morales, A. (2007). “Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation”. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(2), 236-264.