American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 404-409
DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-2
Open AccessArticle

Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Mathematics Using Online-Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (O-POGIL)

John Kevin A. Artuz1, and Dennis B. Roble1

1University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Lapasan Highway, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Pub. Date: July 01, 2021

Cite this paper:
John Kevin A. Artuz and Dennis B. Roble. Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Mathematics Using Online-Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (O-POGIL). American Journal of Educational Research. 2021; 9(7):404-409. doi: 10.12691/education-9-7-2


Mathematics is an essential subject in the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd) K-12 curriculum that requires critical thinking abilities because it is crucial in everyday life along with the growth of other sciences. However, the majority of Filipino students had difficulty understanding mathematical concepts that require higher-order cognitive skills. As a result, students' mathematical process abilities, such as critical thinking, must be strengthened. This study aimed to develop students' critical thinking in mathematics in an online-POGIL environment. The study was conducted to second-year Early Childhood Education students of Pangantucan Bukidnon Community College during the first term of the academic year 2020-2021. It utilized a quasi-experimental Pretest-Post Test Control Group research design. A validated 6-item teacher-made test for critical thinking skills with a reliability coefficient of 0.752 was used to measure students’ critical thinking performance with a rubric scale adapted from St. Petersburg College. Mean and standard deviation was used to evaluate students’ pretest and posttest scores in the critical thinking skills test. A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the significant effect of O-POGIL on students’ critical thinking skills. The findings showed that O-POGIL motivates students to actively participate in activities and improves their learning. Furthermore, students exposed to O-POGIL showed a substantial improvement, demonstrated on communication, analysis, and problem-solving in mathematics. To improve students' critical thinking skills, it is advised to employ the O-POGIL teaching methodology and design resources based on the O-POGIL construct. Other 21st-century process skills that O-POGIL could build and enhance can be researched further.

guided inquiry learning online-process oriented guided inquiry learning Polya’s problem solving critical thinking skills in mathematics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Braza, M & Supapao, S. (2014). Effective Solutions in the implementation of the K to 12 Mathematics Curriculum. West Visayas State University. College of Education. La Paz, Ilo- ilo City, Philippines.
[2]  Soltis, R., Verlinden, N., Kruger, N., Carroll, A. and Trumbo, T., 2020. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course.
[3]  Irwanto, Saputro, A. D., Rohaeti, E., & Prodjosantoso, A. K. (2018). Promoting Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills of Preservice Elementary Teachers through Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL). International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 777-794.
[4]  Siahaan, P., Suryani, A., Kaniawati, I., Suhendi, E., & Samsudin, A. (2017). Improving students’ scientific process skills through simple computer simulations on linear motion conceptions. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (pp. 1-5). IOP Publishing.
[5]  Widyatiningtyas, R., Kusumah, Y., Sumarmo, U. and Sabandar, J., 2015. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability. [online] Available at:
[6]  Memduhuglu, H., Keleş, E. 2016. Evaluation of the relation between critical-thinking tendency and problem-solving skills of pre-service teachers. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi. - Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 6(2), 75-94.
[7]  Duran, M., & Dökme, I. (2016). The effect of the inquiry-based learning approach on student’s critical-thinking skills. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(12), 2887-2908.
[8]  Chase, A., Pakhira, D. and Stains, M., (2013). Implementing Process-Oriented, Guided-Inquiry Learning For the First Time: Adaptations and Short-Term Impacts on Students’ Attitude and Performance. [online]
[9]  Bénéteau, C., Guadarrama, Z., Guerra, J., Lenz, L., Lewis, J. and Straumanis, A., (2017). POGIL in the Calculus Classroom.
[10]  De Gale, S. and Boisselle, L., (2015). The Effect of POGIL on Academic Performance and Academic Confidence. [online] Available at: <>.
[11]  Abdul-Kahar R., Kim Gaik T., Hashim R., Idris M.N., Abdullah N. (2016). Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in Discrete Mathematics. In: Fook C., Sidhu G., Narasuman S., Fong L., Abdul Rahman S. (eds) 7th International Conference on University Learning and Teaching (InCULT 2014) Proceedings. Springer, Singapore.
[12]  Sukmaningthias, N. and Hadi, A. R., (2016). Improve Analytical Thinking Skill and Mathematical Representation of The Students Through Math Problem Solving, Proceeding of 3rd International Conference on Research, Implementation and Education of Mathematics and Science, Yogyakarta, ME-66, pp. 449.
[13]  Yahaya, A., Yahasa, N., & Zakariyya, Z. (2005). Psikologi Kognitif. Johor Baharu: Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
[14]  Ali, R., Hukamdad, Akhter, A., & Khan. (2010). Effect of Using Problem Solving Method in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students. Asian Social Science, 6(2), 67-72.
[15]  Polya, G. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973.
[16]  Nurkaeti, Nunuy. 2018. “Polya’s Strategy: An Analysis of Mathematical Problem Solving Difficulty In 5th Grade Elementary School.”Edu Humanities | Journal of Basic Education Cibiru Campus 10 (2): 140.
[17]  Olaniyan, A. O., Omosewo, E. O., & Nwankwo, L (2015). Effect of polya problem- solving model on senior secondary school students’ performance in current elec- tricity. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3(1), 97-104.
[18]  OECD (2013), PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn: Students’ Engagement, Drive and Self-Beliefs (Volume III), PISA, OECD Publishing.
[19]  Ichinose, C., & Bonsangue, M. (2016). Mathematics Self-Related Beliefs and Online Learning. Learning Assistance Review, 21(1), 55-70.
[20]  Ahn, J. Y., & Edwin, A. (2018). An e-learning model for teaching mathematics on an open source learning platform. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(5).
[21]  Abdi, A. (2014). The Effect of Inquiry-based Learning Method on Students’ Academic Achievement in Science Course. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 37-41.
[22]  Stender, M. Schwichow, C. Zimmerman, & H. Härtig, (2018). Making inquiry-based science learning visible: the influence of CVS and cognitive skills on content knowledge learning in guided inquiry guided inquiry, Int. J. Sci. Educ., vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 1812-1831, 2018.
[23]  Rosadi, I., Maridi, M. and Sunarno, W., 2020. The Effectiveness Of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning To Improve Students’ Analytical Thinking Skills On Excretory System Topic.
[24]  Andriani, S., Nurlaelah, E., Yulianti, K. (2019). The Effect of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) model towards students' logical thinking ability in mathematics J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1157 042108.
[25]  Şen Ş., Yılmaz A. and Geban Ö., (2015). The effects of process oriented guided inquiry learning environment on student self-regulated learning skills, Probls. Educ. 21st Century, 66, 54-66.
[26]  Douglas, E. P. and C.-C. Chiu, C. (2013) Implementation of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in Engineering. Adv. in Eng. Edu. 3(3): 1-15.
[27]  Tohir, M., Susanto, S., Hobri, H., Suharto, S., & Dafik, D. (2018). Students’ creative thinking skills in solving mathematics olympiad problems based on problem-solving Polya and Krulik-Rudnick model. Advanced Science Letters, 24(11), 8361-8364。