American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 180-187
DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-5
Open AccessArticle

Changes in the Quality of Life in the Victorian Empire

Dr. Neslihan GÜNAYDIN ALBAY1,

1Department of English Language and Literature, Doğuş University, Istanbul, Turkey

Pub. Date: April 14, 2021

Cite this paper:
Dr. Neslihan GÜNAYDIN ALBAY. Changes in the Quality of Life in the Victorian Empire. American Journal of Educational Research. 2021; 9(4):180-187. doi: 10.12691/education-9-4-5

Abstract

The Victorian Empire experienced lots of major changes that affected living standards profoundly in different stages of Victorian period. Victorian society bore witness to major penetrating changes at an unprecedented pace, which affected the social, economic, political and educational structure profoundly. It was inevitable that economic progress and industrialization led to population growth in urban life, with the urbanization of rural areas, the intensification of the growth of towns, the coming of the railways, better sanitation, higher living standards, while at the same time the Industrial Revolution created a gap between employers and workers during this mechanization process. These groundbreaking changes naturally transgressed the stereotypical gender roles, by making middle-class women pursue more social rights and independence in both education and work sphere and by attacking the patriarchal structure of the society that condemns women to domestic imprisonment. The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the changes in the quality of life in Victorian Empire, mainly depending upon social, industrial, economic, gender and demographic issues and question whether these changes produced better or worse living conditions during the years between 1837 and 1901.

Keywords:
Victorian society industrial reforms new woman population growth

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Harrison, J.F. (1971). Early Victorian Britain, 1832-51. London: Fontana Press.
 
[2]  Malthus, Thomas. (1976). An Essay on the Principle of Population, ed. Philip Appleman, 2nd edition. London; New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
 
[3]  Hartwell, Ronald Max. (1972). “The Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in England for the Poor”, Long Debate on Poverty (Surrey: The Gresham Press.
 
[4]  Harvie, Christopher & Mattthew, H.C.G. (2000), Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
 
[5]  Pope, R. (1989). Atlas of British Economic and Social History. London: Routledge.
 
[6]  Hobsbawn, E.J. (1987). The Age of Empire 1875-1914. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolso.
 
[7]  Hanson, C.G. (1974). ‘Welfare before the Welfare State’, Long Debate on Poverty. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
 
[8]  Toynbee, Arnold (1908). The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century in England. London: Longmans, Gren, and Co.
 
[9]  Coleman, D.C. (1992), Myth, History and the Industrial Revolution. London: The Hambledon Press.
 
[10]  Altick, Richard D. (1973) Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the modern reader of Victorian Literature (New York; London: W.W. Norton & Company.
 
[11]  Symons, J.C. (1889). Art and Artisans at Home and Abroad. Edinburgh.
 
[12]  Engels, Friedrich. (1993). The Condition of the Working Class in England. Oxford: New York: Oxford University Press.
 
[13]  Thompson, E. P. (1963). The Making of the English Working Class. London: Penguin Books.
 
[14]  Coll, Robert. (2002). Identity of England. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
 
[15]  Woodward, Llewellyn. (1938). The Age of Reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 
[16]  Best, Geoffrey. (1971), Mid-Victorian Britain 1851-75. London: Fontana Press.
 
[17]  Mathias, Peter, (1969). The First Industrial Nation. London; New York: Routledge.
 
[18]  Sweet, Matthew. (2001), Inventing the Victorians. London: Faber and Faber.
 
[19]  Snell, K.D.M. (1985). Annals of the Labouring Poor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
[20]  Davidoff, Leonore & Hall, Catherine. (1987). Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class 1780-1850. London: Hutchinson.
 
[21]  Lewis, Jane. (1986). Labour &Love: Women’s Experience of Home and Family 1850-1940. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
 
[22]  Mill, John Stuart. (1986). The Subjection of Women. New York: Prometeus Books.
 
[23]  Shaw, Bernard. (2005). Mrs Warren’s Profession. Plymouth: Broadview Press.
 
[24]  Porter, R. (1982). English Society in the Eighteenth Century. Harmondsworth.
 
[25]  Lawrence, D.H. (1915). The Rainbow. London: Penguin Books.
 
[26]  Ensor, Robert. (1936). England 1870-1914. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 
[27]  Chandos, John. (1984), Boys Together. London: Hutchinson.
 
[28]  Hughes, Thomas. (1989). Tom Brown’s Schooldays. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
 
[29]  Hoppen, K.T. (1998). The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846-1886. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 
[30]  Hunt, Tristram. (2005). Building Jerusalem: The Rise and Fall of the Victorian City. London: Phoenix.
 
[31]  Mitchell B. R. and Deane, Phyllis. (1962), Abstract of British Historical Statistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.