American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(11), 878-884
DOI: 10.12691/education-8-11-8
Open AccessArticle

Students’ Online Learning Readiness and Internet Connectivity: Bases for the Customization of QSU e-Aral

Jay Francis P. Yra1, Rodrigo H. Castillo Jr.1, Romiro G. Bautista2, , Jamina G. Camayang2 and Arben Gibson G. Camayang3

1College of Information Technology and Computing Sciences, Quirino State University, Philippines

2Graduate School, Quirino State University, Philippines

3College of Health Sciences, Quirino State University, Philippines

Pub. Date: November 30, 2020

Cite this paper:
Jay Francis P. Yra, Rodrigo H. Castillo Jr., Romiro G. Bautista, Jamina G. Camayang and Arben Gibson G. Camayang. Students’ Online Learning Readiness and Internet Connectivity: Bases for the Customization of QSU e-Aral. American Journal of Educational Research. 2020; 8(11):878-884. doi: 10.12691/education-8-11-8


The declaration of pandemic due to CoViD-19 in March 2020 brought a radical change and shift of instructional modalities in education towards online modality due to the non-contact policy of the Philippine government as well as to the governing board of the Commission on Higher Education. Learning Management System involves synchronous and asynchronous learning modalities that can be offered in online and offline modalities. In this regard, the Quirino State University system tried to determine the online learning readiness of its students in its quest of customizing a Learning Management System - the QSU e-Aral. Employing the survey of the Descriptive Research and Developmental Research designs, the following are known: students at QSU are ready in going online classes except for being focused and being able to manage their time in going online; albeit, most of them lack a-priori online activities; students in QSU Maddela vouched inferior concordances in focusing themselves to online tasks and managing their time when compared to their counterparts in Diffun and Cabarroguis; and students at QSU are burdened with computer and internet rentals in cafes in their locality. Aptly, the proposed QSU e-Aral may be customized to have an offline and online feature to suit best the readiness, needs, and financial capability of QSU students.

readiness online learning learning management system QSUe-Aral

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Bovermann, K., Weidlich, J. & Bastiaens, T. (2018). Online learning readiness and attitudes towards gaming in gamified online learning - a mixed methods case study. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 15, 27
[2]  Bhaumik, R. & Priyadarshini, A. (2020). E-readiness of senior secondary school learners to online learning transition amid COVID-19 lockdown. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 244-256.
[3]  Bautista, R.G. (2012). Reconstructing classroom instruction through online instructional delivery technique. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(9), 104-111.
[4]  Harasim, L. (2012). Learning Theory and Online Technologies. New York, N.Y.: Routledge Press
[5]  1998 World Declaration on Higher Education for the 21st Century: Vision and Action, and framework for Priority Action for Change and Development in Higher Education. October 9, 1998.
[6]  Patrick, S. (2011). New Learning Models: The Evolution of Online Learning into Innovative K-12 Blended Programs. Educational Technology, 51(6), 19-26.
[7]  Peters, MA., Rizvi, F., McCulloch, G., Gibbs, P., Gorur, R., Hong, M., Hwang, Y. et al. (2020): Reimagining the new pedagogical possibilities for universities post-Covid-19. Educational Philosophy and Theory.
[8]  Bautista, RG. (2017). Welcome to my e-learning group: The efficacy of online scaffolding. Journal of Global Management Research, 37-45.
[9]  Rouadi, N. & Anouti, M. (2020). The online learning experiment in the intermediate and secondary schools in Lebanon during the Coronavirus (CoViD-19) crisis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering, and Technology, 7(7), 14466-14485.
[10]  Kong, S.C., Chan, T.-W., Griffin, P., Hoppe, U. Huang, R., Kinshuk, Looi C.K., Milrad, M., Norris, C., Nassbaum, M., Sharples, M., & Shengquan Yu. (2014). E-learning in School Education in the Coming 10 Years for Developing 21st Century Skills: Critical Research Issues and Policy Implications. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(1), 70-78.
[11]  Taylor, R., Franklin, F., & Gordon, N. (2012). Student learning through social media. Journal of Sociological Research, 3(10).
[12]  Anderson, T. (2008). Toward a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning, Chapter 2 (pp. 45-74).
[13]  Apostol, EMM., Apolonio, AM., Jose, Jr., BM., Garingan, EG., and Bautista, RG. (2016). Optimizing classroom instruction through online instructional delivery technique. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(4), 302-306.
[14]  Scheffer, D. & Heckhausen, H. (2018) Trait theories of motivation. In: Heckhausen J, Heckhausen H, eds. Motivation and Action. Springer.
[15]  Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
[16]  Sthapit, A. & Shrestha, B. (2020). Comparative knowledge gained from online and face-to-face learning modes in management courses in Nepal. Journal of Business and Social Science Research, 4(1), 35-50.
[17]  Holubiyi, D. & Radi, M. (2020). Higher Education in the time of COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities of online learning. Conference Report: Professors without Borders.
[18]  Barbera, E., Clara, M., & Linder-Vanberschot, J. A. (2013). Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction and Perceived Learning in Online Courses. E-Learning and Digital Media, 10(3), 226-235.
[19]  Picciano, A. G. (2017). Theories and Frameworks for Online Education: Seeking an Integrated Model. Retrieved from City University of New York Graduate Center and Hunter College: