American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(10), 804-811
DOI: 10.12691/education-8-10-10
Open AccessArticle

Out of School Children: Enhancing Factors and Consequences for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

Charity N. Okoh1, Emenike John A.1, , Amina Doma1 and Mary O. Akinsola1

1Department of Early Child Care and Education, Federal College of Education, P.M.B 39 Kontagora, Niger State

Pub. Date: October 30, 2020

Cite this paper:
Charity N. Okoh, Emenike John A., Amina Doma and Mary O. Akinsola. Out of School Children: Enhancing Factors and Consequences for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2020; 8(10):804-811. doi: 10.12691/education-8-10-10

Abstract

Education is a key to development and sustainable development. Children out of school deter development and sustainable development. The purpose of the study is an investigation on Out of school children: enhancing factors and consequences for sustainable development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria. The design of the study was a survey research design which involves the retrieving of data from selected respondents representing the entire population comprising of teachers and parents in the North Central Geo-Political zone of Nigeria. The sample size of 800 respondents was selected from the 2 sample states drawn through simple random sampling techniques. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research strategies in analyzing the data. Data was gathered through questionnaire titled ‘Out of School Children Questionnaire’ (OSCQ). The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation scores and independent t test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that poverty, child labour, teenage pregnancy and distance to school are the major causes of children out of school in the North Central Geo Political zone. Also menial jobs were major implication of out of school children. Based on the findings of the study the recommendations made were that punishment should be prescribed for parents whose children are out of school and there should be poverty reduction strategies in the development of appropriate policies and intervention strategies to help poor people improve their living standard.

Keywords:
enhancing factors consequences sustainable development out of school children north central zone

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  UNDP. Human Development Report 1990. Concept and Measurement of Human Development. New York. http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1990. 1990.
 
[2]  Ranis, G., Stewart, F. & Samman, E. Human Development: Beyond the Human Development Index. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 7, (3), 323-358, 2006.
 
[3]  Hornby, A. S.. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
 
[4]  Lindon, I.. Understanding Child Development (http://www.amazon.co.uklJcnmc-LindonleIB001K85ZAG (Accessed on:) (Accessed on:
 
[5]  Federal Republic of Nigeria, National policy on education. Abuja: NERDC Publishers, 2014.
 
[6]  UNICEF, Education: The Challenge. Retrieved at https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/education, 2014.
 
[7]  Boggia, A. & Cortina, C. Measuring sustainable development using a multi-criteria model: A case study. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, (11), pp. 2301-2306, 2010.
 
[8]  Gall, M., Gall, J., & Borg, R.. Educational research: An introduction (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, 2007.
 
[9]  Shehu, H. K. Factors Influencing Primary School Non-attendance among Children in North West Nigeria. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 9, (2); 2916-2922, 2018.
 
[10]  Smits, J. & Huisman, J. Determinants of Educational Participation and Gender Differences in Education in Six Arab Countries. Acta Sociologica, 56(4), pp.325-346, 2013.
 
[11]  Adam, S., Adom, D. & Bediako, A. B. The Major Factors That Influence Basic School Dropout in Rural Ghana: The Case of Asunafo South District in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice. 7, (28), 1-8, 2016.
 
[12]  Chugh, S. Dropout in Secondary Education: A Study of Children Living in Slums of Delhi. NUEPA Ocassional Paper 37, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi, February. pp 21-31, 2011.
 
[13]  Saks, A. L. Longitudinal field investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and newcomer adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 211-225, 1995.
 
[14]  Birdi, K., Allan, C., & Warr, P. Correlates and perceived outcomes of four types of employee development activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 845-857, 1997.
 
[15]  Hodgkinson, S. L. Beers, C Southammakosane & A Lewin, “Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents”, Pediatrics 133: 114-122, 2014.
 
[16]  Reid, V. & M Meadows-Oliver, “Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers: An Integrative Review of the Literature”, Journal of Pediatric Health Care 21: 289-298, 2007.
 
[17]  Omoeva, C., Hatch, R., & Sylla, B. Teenage, married, and out of school. Effects of early marriage and child-birth on school dropout. Available from:http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/EPDC_EarlyMarriage_ Report.pdf. 2004.
 
[18]  Nguyen, M. C. &,Wodon, Q. Impact of child marriage on literacy and education attainment in Africa. Available from:http://allinschool.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/OOSC- 2014-QW-Child-Marriage-final.pdf. 2014.
 
[19]  Hotz J, McElroy, S. W & Sanders, S. G. Teenage childbearing and its life cycle consequences: Exploiting a natural experiment, Journal of Human Resources 40: 683-715, 2005.
 
[20]  Almond, D & Currie, J. Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis, Journal of Economic Perspectives 25: 153-72, 2011.
 
[21]  Vayachuta, P., Ratana-Ubol, A. & Soopanyo, W. The study of ‘out-of-school’ children and youth situations for developing a lifelong education model for ‘out-of-school’ children and youth, 2016.