American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 272-277
DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-7
Open AccessArticle

Training Program on Special Education: A Development of Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills for the Proper Implementation of Inclusive Education

Melissa S. Acenas1, and Sol J. Dalonos1

1Department of Special Education, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Pub. Date: May 13, 2020

Cite this paper:
Melissa S. Acenas and Sol J. Dalonos. Training Program on Special Education: A Development of Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills for the Proper Implementation of Inclusive Education. American Journal of Educational Research. 2020; 8(5):272-277. doi: 10.12691/education-8-5-7


The study was carried out with the main purpose of developing and enhancing the general education teachers’ knowledge and skills on special education for the proper implementation of inclusive education. This study was conducted on 25 teachers of Kinoguitan Central School. Data were gathered by using three (3) essential tools: demographic information survey, test and evaluation form. Collected data sets were tallied, summarized and analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results revealed that 100% of the teacher-participants have very limited knowledge and skills on special education; resulting in the negligence of proper implementation of Inclusive Education. However, with the use of the training program as an intervention, the teacher-participants’ knowledge and skills have developed. The scores of the teacher-participants on the posttest have significantly improved. From 11.96 as the average score in the pretest, it has increased to 27.88 in the posttest. Furthermore, the evaluation results of the training program obtained a total of 4.67, 4.56 and 4.60 ratings in the three (3) criteria: content & organization, trainer and instructional materials used respectively. The findings indicated that the teachers’ knowledge and skills on Special Education after the training have improved. Given the increased average score on the posttest as an indicator that a training program can help the teachers improve their knowledge and skills on special education for the proper implementation of inclusive education, it is necessary to encourage and support any training programs that would aid in bridging the gap between special education and inclusive education.

special education inclusive education knowledge & skills

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Torreno, S. (n.d.). History of Inclusion & Improvement in Educating Students with Disabilities. Retrieved from strategies/66803-brief-legal-history-of-inclusion-in-special- education/
[2]  UNESCO. (2015). Education for All 2015 National Review. Retrieved from
[3]  Ainscow, M., Dyson, A., Hopwood, L., & Thompson, S. (2016). A Report for Cambridge Primary Review Trust. Retrieved from:
[4]  WHO. (2011). World Health Statistics, 2011. Retrieved from
[5]  Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Retrieved from: s/QualitiesOfEffectiveTeachers3rdEd_Stronge_0318.pdf.
[6]  Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Understanding the Differences between IDEA and Section 504. Retrieved from
[7]  O’Connor, E. A., Yasik, A. E., & Horner S. E. (2016). Teachers’ Knowledge of Special Education: What do They Know?. Retrieved from:
[8]  Bocala, C., Morgan, C., Mundry, S., & Melo, D. Do States Have Certification Requirements for Preparing General Education Teachers to Teach Students with Disabilities? Experience in Northeat and Islands Region. Retrieved from
[9]  Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian L. (2011). Preparing General Education Teachers to Improve Outcomes for Students with Disabilities. Retrieved from
[10]  TALIS Report (2018). Results (Volume I): Teaching and Learning International. Retrieved from:
[11]  Best, M., Corcoran, T. & Slee, R. (2018). Who’s In? Who’s Out?. Retrieved from: %09WHO+2011:+39,+Grech,+2009;+Muderedzi+%26+Ingstad, +2011&source=bl&ots=I7GP0UiaiQ&sig=ACfU3U2m3GXvhHH kq4ppWjpcBUVBxNHfHg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiWlby EhvXlAhVOFogKHWioBkAQ6AEwAnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage &q=-%09WHO%202011%3A%2039%2C%20Grech%2C%202009%3 B%20Muderedzi%20%26%20Ingstad%2C%202011&f=false
[12]  Barton, L. (2003). Inclusive education and teacher education: a basis of hope or a discourse of delusion. Retrieved from:
[13]  Alborz, A., Slee, R., & Miles, S. (2013). Establishing the foundations for an Inclusive education system in Iraq: Reflection on findings from a nationwide survey. Retrieved from: publication/263150445_Establishing_the_foundations_for_an_incl usive_education_system_in_Iraq_Reflection_on_findings_from_a_nationwide_survey.
[14]  Murphy, L. (2016). A Professional Development on Autism Spectrum Disorders for Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from
[15]  Kinoguitan District Planning Report. (2017).
[16]  Faraclas, K. L. (2018). A Professional Development Training Model for Improving Co-Teaching Performance. Retrieved from
[17]  Elnaga, A. & Imran, A. (2013). The Effect of Training on Employee Performance.
[18]  Sitzman, T. (2015). Training Engagement Theory: A Multilevel Perspective on the Effectiveness of Work-Related Training. Retrieved from
[19]  De Jesus, L. F. (2018). Drop-in to Special Education Centers in Bulacan. Retrieved from
[20]  Andriotis, N. (2018). 5 Popular Employee Training Methods for Workplace Training. Retrieved from
[21]  Farrant, P., Cohen, S. N. & Burge, S. M. (2008). Attributes of an Effective Instructor: Implications of the Views of UK Dermatology Trainees: Attributes of an Effective Instructor. British Journal of Dermatology, 158(3), 544-549.
[22]  Wisshak, S. & Hochholldinger, S. (2018). Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills from the Perspective of Trainers, Trainees and Human Resource Development Practitioners. Retrieved from'_kn owledge_and_skills_from_the_perspective_of_trainers_trainees_a nd_human_resource_development_practitioners.
[23]  Yani, A., & Ahmad S. S. B. H. (2018). The Instructional Materials of The Arabic Language Teaching for Non-Arabic Speakers in the Republic Of Indonesia: A Typical Study of the State University Of Malang, Indonesia. Retrieved From Https://Files.Eric.Ed.Gov/Fulltext/Ed596270.Pdf.