American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(7), 439-444
DOI: 10.12691/education-7-7-2
Open AccessSpecial Issue

Preparing the 21st Century Teacher for the Implementation of Outcomes-Based Education: The Practical Reality

Jane Iloanya1,

1Botho University, Botswana

Pub. Date: July 02, 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hiring Teachers: The Issues)

Cite this paper:
Jane Iloanya. Preparing the 21st Century Teacher for the Implementation of Outcomes-Based Education: The Practical Reality. American Journal of Educational Research. 2019; 7(7):439-444. doi: 10.12691/education-7-7-2


Teaching and learning in contemporary education systems are experiencing a paradigm shift. There is a move from the traditional teacher-centred teaching, to student-centred education. Outcome-based education is a process of curriculum design that starts with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure that learning ultimately takes place. At the centre of outcome-based education is the learner. How best can the learner learn? What is the role of the teacher in making sure that learning takes place? How do we prepare teachers for the successful implementation of outcome-based education? How do we take care of every learner’s needs? These are pertinent questions that this paper addresses. The study was carried out in Botswana using a qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interview questions were adopted to collect data from twelve teachers purposively selected from three technical colleges in Botswana. Relevant documentary analysis was used to augment the data that was collected through semi-structured interviews. Findings of the study revealed that different stakeholders understand the role of teachers in the implementation of outcome-based education differently and that teachers should be adequately prepared if outcomes-based education is to be implemented successfully in Botswana. The study concludes that the teacher recruitment exercise in the 21st century should be geared towards hiring teachers who are equipped with the necessary skills needed for teaching 21st century learners.

teacher preparation implementation outcomes-based education

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Spady, W. G. (1994). Outcome-based education: Critical issues and answers. Arlington: American Association School of Administrators.
[2]  Nygard, C. & Holtham, C. (2008). The need for learning-centred higher education. In C. Nygard & C. Holtham (Eds), Understanding learning–centred higher education (pp. 11-29). Copenhagen, Denmark: Narayana.
[3]  Tuning Africa Project (2014). Tuning and Harmonisation of Higher Education: The African Experience. Bilbao: University of Deusto, Nuffic/ Tuning Association.
[4]  Davis, H. (2003). Educational strategies, outcome-based education. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 30 (3), 227-232.
[5]  Nicholson, K. (2011). Essential principles of outcome-based education. Retrieved from:
[6]  Rantung, K. (2017). Implementation of a based education in tertiary institutions in Botswana: Perspectives of students and lecturers. A master’s degree dissertation submitted to Botho University, Botswana.
[7]  Mhizha, B. M. (2012). The implementation of the Botswana technical education programme. Retrieved from: ch%20Report%20Mhizha%20B%20%20Final%20Submission.pdf ?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
[8]  Botswana Education and Training Sector Strategic Plan (2015). Republic of Botswana, Government printers, Gaborone. Retrieved from:
[9]  Republic of Botswana (1977). Education for Kagisano. Government Printers, Gaborone.
[10]  Republic of Botswana (1994). Revised National Policy on Education. Government Printers, Gaborone.
[11]  Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-Based Learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-266.
[12]  Moyhayindin, M. (2008). Implementation of outcome-based education in University Putra Malaysia: A focus on students’ learning outcomes. International Education Studies, 1(4), 47-160.
[13]  Harden, R. M. (2007). Outcome-Based Education: The future is today. Medical Teacher, 29(7), 625-269.
[14]  Lee, J. F., & Cheung, H., (2015). Teaching effectiveness and Outcome Based Approach: Perceptions among sub- degree teachers in Hong Kong. Retrieved from:
[15]  Killen, R. (2000).based education: Principles and possibilities. Unpublished manuscript, University of Newcastle, Faculty of Education.
[16]  Harden, R. M. (2009). Developments in outcome-based education. Medical Teacher, 24(2), 112-117.
[17]  Stefani, L. (2009). A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education enhancing academic practice, 3rd edition. New York: Routledge.
[18]  Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st Century Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(10), 1-15.
[19]  Guo, L. (2014). Preparing Teachers to Educate for 21st Century Global Citizenship: Envisioning and Enacting. Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education. 4(1), 1-23.
[20]  Rogers, K. B. (2007). Lessons learned about educating the gifted and talented: A synthesis of the research and education practice. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(4), 382-396.
[21]  Apple, M.W. Global Crises, social justice and teacher education (2011). Journal of Teacher Education, 62(2), 222-234.
[22]  Delvin-Foltz, B. (2010). Teachers for the global age: A call to action for funders. Teaching Education, 21 (1), 113-117.
[23]  Darling–Hammond, L. (2013). Powerful teachereducation: Lessons from exemplary programs. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
[24]  Iloanya, J. (2014). Quality Teacher Education in Botswana: A crucial requirement for effective teaching and learning, Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal,. 3(1), 1743-1749.
[25]  Hadi, A. A. & Zain, N. M. (2016). Students’ perception towards program outcomes: A systematic review. International Journal on Education Research, 4(4). Retrieved from:
[26]  Zhao, Y. (2010). Preparing globally competent teachers: A new imperative for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 422-431.
[27]  Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, C.A: Sage.
[28]  Yin, R. K. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[29]  Eldesh, R., & Shatakumari, N. (2013). Outcome-based education (OBE) –Trend review. Journal of Research and Methods in Education, 2(2), 9-11.
[30]  Adeyemo, E. O. (2015) Lecturers’ perception towards students’ assessment of their teaching effectiveness in Nigeria University. Retrieved from:
[31]  Fraser, W., & Killen, R. (2005). The perceptions of students and lecturers of some factors influencing academic performance of two South African Universities. Perspectives in Education, 23(1), 25-40.
[32]  Appleyard, N. & McLean, L. (2011). Expecting the exceptional: Pre-service professional development in global education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 7(2), 6-32.
[33]  Kelly, J. A. (2004). Teaching the World: A new requirement for teacher preparation. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(3), 19-21.
[34]  Laugksch, R. C., Aldridge, J. M. & Fraser, B. J. (2007). Outcome-based education in South Africa: Using an instrument to assess school-level environment during the implementation. Paper presented at the 2007 Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), 25-29 November 2007, Fremantle.
[35]  Holden, C. & Hicks, D. (2007). Making global connections: The knowledge, understanding and motivation of trainee teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(1), 13-23.