Biomedical Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2373-1257 ISSN (Online): 2373-1265 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 35-40
DOI: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2
Open AccessReview Article

Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain

Yasutomo Nomura1,

1Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan

Pub. Date: October 09, 2015

Cite this paper:
Yasutomo Nomura. Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):35-40. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2


Near infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique to evaluate hemodynamics in cerebral tissue where the light used is subject to the low scattering effect. In this wavelength range, hemoglobin has the characteristic absorption spectra. Because of the noninvasive method, this gives valuable information containing venous blood to the clinical field such as cardiac surgery, neurosurgery and pediatrics. Although the technique originates from classical biochemistry with clear solution, researchers have proposed creative ideas to be suitable for measuring hemodynamics in living tissue optically. In this mini-review, theoretical basis from Lambert-Beer law to multiwavelength method and derivation of the linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigments from the time-resolved method are described. Furthermore the recent advances are also outlined.

ear infrared spectroscopy hemoglobin absorption concentration Lambert-Beer law time resolved spectroscopy

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  F. F. Jobsis, Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters, Science, vol. 198, pp. 1264-7, Dec 23 1977.
[2]  H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Light scattering in Intralipid 10% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm, Appl Opt, vol. 30, pp. 4507-4514, 1991.
[3]  H. B√ľning-Pfaue, Analysis of water in food by near infrared spectroscopy, Food Chem, vol. 82, pp. 107-115, 7// 2003.
[4]  O. Hazeki and M. Tamura, Quantitative analysis of hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat brain in situ by near-infrared spectrophotometry, J Appl Physiol (1985), vol. 64, pp. 796-802, Feb 1988.
[5]  J. M. Conway, K. H. Norris, and C. E. Bodwell, A new approach for the estimation of body composition: infrared interactance, Am J Clin Nutr, vol. 40, pp. 1123-30, Dec 1984.
[6]  Y. Hoshi, O. Hazeki, Y. Kakihana, and M. Tamura, Redox behavior of cytochrome oxidase in the rat brain measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, J Appl Physiol (1985), vol. 83, pp. 1842-8, Dec 1997.
[7]  P. Du Yi, Y. Z. Liang, S. Kasemsumran, K. Maruo, and Y. Ozaki, Removal of interference signals due to water from in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectra of blood glucose by region orthogonal signal correction (ROSC), Anal Sci, vol. 20, pp. 1339-45, Sep 2004.
[8]  M. Nitzan, A. Romem, and R. Koppel, Pulse oximetry: fundamentals and technology update, Med Devices (Auckl), vol. 7, pp. 231-9, 2014.
[9]  D. A. Benaron, C. D. Kurth, J. M. Steven, M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, and B. Chance, Transcranial optical path length in infants by near-infrared phase-shift spectroscopy, J Clin Monit, vol. 11, pp. 109-17, Mar 1995.
[10]  S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, vol. 36, pp. 1162-8, Dec 1989.
[11]  Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, Exponential attenuation of light along nonlinear path through the biological model, Adv Exp Med Biol, vol. 248, pp. 77-80, 1989.
[12]  Y. Nomura and M. Tamura, Quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat brain in vivo by picosecond time-resolved spectrophotometry, J Biochem, vol. 109, pp. 455-61, Mar 1991.
[13]  Y. Nomura and M. Tamura, Picosecond time of flight measurement of living tissue: time resolved Beer-Lambert law, Adv Exp Med Biol, vol. 316, pp. 131-6, 1992.
[14]  Y. Nomura, O. Hazeki, and M. Tamura, Relationship between time-resolved and non-time-resolved Beer-Lambert law in turbid media, Phys Med Biol, vol. 42, pp. 1009-22, Jun 1997.
[15]  Y. Hasegawa, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, and Y. Nomura, Monte Carlo simulation of light transmission through living tissues, Appl Opt, vol. 30, pp. 4515-20, Nov 1 1991.
[16]  K. Brady, B. Joshi, C. Zweifel, P. Smielewski, M. Czosnyka, R. B. Easley, et al., Real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, Stroke, vol. 41, pp. 1951-6, Sep 2010.
[17]  J. Schoen, L. Husemann, C. Tiemeyer, A. Lueloh, B. Sedemund-Adib, K. U. Berger, et al., Cognitive function after sevoflurane- vs propofol-based anaesthesia for on-pump cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial, Br J Anaesth, vol. 106, pp. 840-50, Jun 2011.
[18]  Y. Hoshi, Towards the next generation of near-infrared spectroscopy, Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, vol. 369, pp. 4425-39, Nov 28 2011.
[19]  Y. Ogawa, K. Kotani, and Y. Jimbo, Relationship between working memory performance and neural activation measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, Brain Behav, vol. 4, pp. 544-51, Jul 2014.
[20]  M. Nemoto, Y. Nomura, C. Sato, M. Tamura, K. Houkin, I. Koyanagi, et al., Analysis of optical signals evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex: dynamic changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, vol. 19, pp. 246-59, Mar 1999.
[21]  Y. Nomura, F. Fujii, C. Sato, M. Nemoto, and M. Tamura, Exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon for studying synaptically evoked optical signal in rat cortex, Brain Res Brain Res Protoc, vol. 5, pp. 10-5, Feb 2000.
[22]  A. N. Obeid, G. Dougherty, and S. Pettinger, In vivo comparison of a twin wavelength laser Doppler flowmeter using He-Ne and laser diode sources, J Med Eng Technol, vol. 14, pp. 102-10, May-Jun 1990.
[23]  J. Lee, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, A. Daneshmand, M. Climov, C. Ayata, et al., Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, vol. 33, pp. 819-825, 06//print 2013.
[24]  Y. Tsukasaki, M. Morimatsu, G. Nishimura, T. Sakata, H. Yasuda, A. Komatsuzaki, et al., Synthesis and optical properties of emission-tunable PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots for in vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window, RSC Advances, vol. 4, pp. 41164-41171, 2014.
[25]  K. Lugo, X. Miao, F. Rieke, and L. Y. Lin, Remote switching of cellular activity and cell signaling using light in conjunction with quantum dots, Biomed Opt Express, vol. 3, pp. 447-54, Mar 1 2012.