Biomedical Science and Engineering
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Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 53-67
DOI: 10.12691/bse-2-3-2
Open AccessReview Article

Review Article: Non-Invasive Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Techniques

Enas W. Abdulhay1, Rami J. Oweis1, , Asal M. Alhaddad1, Fadi N. Sublaban1, Mahmoud A. Radwan1 and Hiyam M. Almasaeed1

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

Pub. Date: August 12, 2014

Cite this paper:
Enas W. Abdulhay, Rami J. Oweis, Asal M. Alhaddad, Fadi N. Sublaban, Mahmoud A. Radwan and Hiyam M. Almasaeed. Review Article: Non-Invasive Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Techniques. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(3):53-67. doi: 10.12691/bse-2-3-2


Fetal heart rate monitoring is a process carried out during pregnancy and/or labor to keep track of the fetal heart rate and in some devices the uterine contractions. A variety of techniques has been studied and is used on a daily basis in many hospitals. This review discusses and compares the operating principle, the key signal processing techniques, advantages and drawbacks of five of those techniques: fetal electrocardiography (FECG) using abdominal surface electrodes, photoplethysmography (PPG) using near infrared (NIR) light, Doppler ultrasound, ultrasound based cardiotocography (CTG) known as electronic fetal monitoring and fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). The review leads to the conclusion that the PPG overcomes almost all of the drawbacks of the other methods and thus deserves the most attention in future biomedical research.

fetal heart rate FECG PPG CTG FMCG fetal pulse oximetery doppler ultrasound

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