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Biomedicine and Biotechnology

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Content: Volume 2, Issue 3


Screening, Optimization and Process Scale up for Pilot Scale Production of Lipase by Aspergillus niger

1Department of Biotechnology, WhiteHouse Institute of Science and Technology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal

2Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014, 2(3), 54-59
DOI: 10.12691/bb-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Baplu Rai, Ashish Shrestha, Shishir Sharma, Jarina Joshi. Screening, Optimization and Process Scale up for Pilot Scale Production of Lipase by Aspergillus niger. Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014; 2(3):54-59. doi: 10.12691/bb-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Baplu  Rai, Department of Biotechnology, WhiteHouse Institute of Science and Technology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. Email:


An enzyme with various commercial purpose, lipase is a carboxy esterase enzyme with many uses in different industries. Multiple isolates of Aspergillus niger were isolated from oil contaminated soil samples and screened for lipase producing ability on tributyrin medium. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified and subjected to growth parameters optimization in attempt to increase the enzyme producing ability of the isolate in larger scale. Different media with varying composition were examined for best lipase production. The activities of the lipase produced by the fungus at various pH were assessed. The enzyme activity was determined by the titration method. Maximum lipase activity of 2.4 U/ml was achieved with organic nitrogen rich media (designated as PM II) at pH 7 on the sixth day of culture. The lipase production was scaled up on a pilot scale in a 5 Liter fermenter maintaining growth parameters of pH 7, temperature at 28°C, stirrer rate at 120 rpm, airflow rate at 30 L/hr, O2 saturation 50% and pressure 0.05 MPa. The crude enzyme was extracted for further assays. Optimization of the parameters can improve the productivity as well as the quality of the enzyme produced.



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Microbial Contamination of Currency Notes and Coins in Circulation: A Potential Public Health Hazard

1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014, 2(3), 46-53
DOI: 10.12691/bb-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Agersew Alemu. Microbial Contamination of Currency Notes and Coins in Circulation: A Potential Public Health Hazard. Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014; 2(3):46-53. doi: 10.12691/bb-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Agersew  Alemu, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. Email:


Background: A Paper currency note is widely exchanged for goods and services in countries worldwide and it was first developed in China. An individual living in unhygienic conditions having unhygienic habits will contaminate the notes with bacteria and these notes will act as a vehicle delivering bacteria to contaminate the hands of the next user. improper hand washing after using the toilet, counting paper notes using saliva, coughing and sneezing on hands then exchanging money, and placement or storage of paper notes on dirty surfaces leads to the contamination and these notes will act as a vehicle delivering bacteria to contaminate the hands of the next user. The money makes for easy transfer of microorganisms and thus cross contamination. Paper notes of currency which is handled by a large number of people, under a variety of personal and environmental conditions thus increase the possibility of acting as environmental vehicle for the transmission of potential pathogenic microorganisms. Accumulated data obtained over the last 20 years on the microbial status and survival of pathogen on currency notes indicate that this could represent a potential cause of sporadic cases of food borne illness. The lower the index values of the money, the higher the microbial contamination of the currency. They further showed that the age of the notes and the material that was used to produce the notes influence the number of microbial contamination. Lower denomination notes harbor the greatest bulk of infectious agents since they are exchanged more than higher denomination notes. Several studies have reported bacterial contamination from 60% to as much as 100% on tested paper currencies. Study conducted on India rupee, Bangladesh Teka, Iraqi and Ghanaian Currency Notes were contaminated with 100% by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacteria. Eighty-eight percent of the Saudi one Riyal paper note, 96.25% of Palestine banknote, 69% of Mexico, 91.1% Colombian bills, 90% of South African banknotes were contaminated with pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacteria with mixed bacterial growth. Currency notes in circulation are contaminated with various microbial agents of which most are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and therefore represents risks and public health hazards to the community and individuals handling currency notes.



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Application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Clean-up Polluted Water in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Applied & Environmental Microbiology Lab, Enviro Technology Limited (CETP), India

Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014, 2(3), 42-45
DOI: 10.12691/bb-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maulin P Shah. Application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Clean-up Polluted Water in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014; 2(3):42-45. doi: 10.12691/bb-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Maulin  P Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Applied & Environmental Microbiology Lab, Enviro Technology Limited (CETP), India. Email:


Microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments. These biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants in the polluted environment. Utilization of catabolic versatility of naturally occurring microorganisms in biodegrading processes is an essential process to degrade or convert such compounds. Recent developments in molecular microbial ecology offer new tools that facilitate molecular analyses of microbial population at contaminated sites. Both conventional and the molecular methods were used in this study to identify the bacteria from different polluted environments. Bacteria were isolated from the dye industry, Common Effluent Treatment Plant & Final Effluent Treatment Plant of Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. Then, microbial DNA was isolated and amplified with Pseudomonas aeruginosa specific primers. The amplification of 162 bp specific region of catabolic gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa confirmed the presence of this organism in the contaminated water collected from different climatic regions in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India.



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