Biomedicine and Biotechnology
ISSN (Print): 2378-5527 ISSN (Online): 2378-5535 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2013, 1(2), 11-16
DOI: 10.12691/bb-1-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice

AyyadWajeeh Raaof1, , Zahraa Abdul-Elah Al-Naqqash2, Abdul-Latif M. Jawad1 and Salah M. Muhsan3

1Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

2College of Pharmacy, Al-Mustansyria University, baghdad, Iraq

3Biotechnology research center, Al.Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq

Pub. Date: November 15, 2013

Cite this paper:
AyyadWajeeh Raaof, Zahraa Abdul-Elah Al-Naqqash, Abdul-Latif M. Jawad and Salah M. Muhsan. Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice. Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2013; 1(2):11-16. doi: 10.12691/bb-1-2-3


As Alkaloids known for their pharmaceutical importance; this research included the extraction of crude alkaloids of three plants (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe, Thymus vulgaris L. and Acaciaarabica L.) and evaluate their activity as coagulant agent by using three degraded concentrations of each plant extract and tested them on lab mice through the observation of the variations in bleeding time(BT), clotting time(CT), platelet, red blood cells(RBC), packed cell volume(PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin counts(Hb) with Calcium count (Ca) in blood. The results revealed differences in the percentage of alkaloids in the plants under the study; Zingiber was the higher one followed by Thymus and Acacia respectively.Zingiberwas also the most effective plant as coagulant factor than other two plants as it decreased both BT and CT and increased platelets, RBC, PCV, WBC and Ca count. more than what T. vulgaris and A. arabica affected on blood characters mentioned before.

alkaloids coagulant agent bleeding time clotting time platelets blood cells packed cell volume white blood cells hemoglobin and calcium counts

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 9


[1]  Okwu, D.E. Phytochemicals, “Vitamins and Mineral contents of two Nigeria Medicinal plants”. Int. J.Mol. Med. Adv. Sci. 1(4): 375-381. 2005.
[2]  Harborne, J.B. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of plant Analysis.Chapman and Hall, London. 1973.
[3]  Stary, F. The Nat rural Guide to Medicinal Herbs, and Plants. Tiger Books International, London. 1998.pp. 12-16.
[4]  Harborne, J.B.Phytochemical methods.Chapman and Hall. New York 2nd ed.1984. Pp: 288.
[5]  Jones, W.P. and Kinghorn, A.D. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites. In: Methods in biotechnology, natural products isolation. Sarker, S.D., Latif, Z., and Gray, A.I. (eds.). Vol: 20, 2nd ed., Humana press, Inc., Totowa, New Jersey.2006.
[6]  Al-Salami, O.M. Effect of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on the biological performance of Schizaphisgraminum.Ph.D. Thesis, College of Science/Babylon University. (In Arabic).1998.
[7]  Spehaat, M. H.K.. Study of the biological effects of ZingiberofficinaleRosco. extracts against some micro-organisms and thrombase.MS.c. thesis, College of Science, Baghdad University. Iraq. 2008.
[8]  Shrivastava, B.K. and N.L. Das. A Manual of Practical Physiology. Scientific Book Company Patna. 2nd edition.1987.Pp.75-93.
[9]  Dacie, V.; Sir John and M.S. Lewis. Practical Haematology, ELBS. 8th edition; 297-349.1995.
[10]  Garcia-Mazano A, Gonzalez-Llave J, Lemini C, et al. Standardization of rat blood clotting tests with reagent used for humans. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2001; 44: 153-155.
[11]  Harrison, P.; H. Segal; C. Briggs; M. Murphy and S. Machin. Impact of Immunological platelet counting(by the platelet/RBC ratio) on Haematological Practice. Cytometry part B (Clinical cytometry) 67B: 1-5.2005.
[12]  SAS. (2004). Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 7th ed. SAS. Inst. Inc. Cary. N.C. USA.
[13]  Henning, S.H.; A.Glick; D. Greenhalh; D. Morgan and S. Ysuopa. "Catechin content of 18 teas and a green tea extracts supplements correlates with the antioxidant capacity nutrition and cancer", Cancer Biol. Ther.,45:266-235. 2003.
[14]  Akintobi, O.A.; C.C. Onoh; J.O. Ogele; A.A. Idowu; O.V. Ojo and I.O. Okonko." Antimicrobial Activity of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Extract against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria". Nat Sci;11;1 (7-15) (ISSN: 1545- 0740). 2013.
[15]  Saini, M.L.; R. Saini; S. Roy and A. Kumar. "Comparative pharmacognostical and antimicrobial studies of acacia species (Mimosaceae)". Journal of Medicinal Plants Research; Vol. 2(12): 378-386. 2008.
[16]  Jigam, A.A.; H.O. Akanya; B.E.N. Dauda and J.O. Okogun."Polygalloyltannin isolated from the roots of Acacia nilotica Del. (Leguminoseae) is effective against Plasmodium berghei in mice". J. Med. Plants Res., 4(12): 1169-1175. 2010.
[17]  Raghavendra, M.P.; S. Satish and K.A. Raveesha. “In vitro evaluation of anti-bacterial spectrum and phytochemical analysis of Acacia nilotica”. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2(1): 77-88. 2006.
[18]  Rang, H.; P.M. Dale and J.M. Ritter. Pharmacology. 4th edition Churchill Livingstone, UK, pp. 589-600, 340-348.1999.
[19]  Dapper, D.V.; P.N. Achinike and M.D. Gwotmut. “The effects of Aloevera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats”. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, 2(1):56-60. 2007.
[20]  Weremfo, A.; M.B. Adinortey and A.N.M. Pappoe. “Haemostatic Effect of the Stem Juice of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) in Guinea Pigs”. Advances in Biological Research. 5 (4): 190-192. 2011.
[21]  Ochei, J. and A. Kolhatkar. Medical Laboratory Science. Theory and Practice. Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Delhi. 2nd Edition, pp. 331-349. 2000.
[22]  De Caterina, R.; M. Lanza; G. Manca; G.B. Strata; S. Maffei and L. Salvatore. "Bleeding Time and Bleeding: An analysis of the relationship of the bleeding time test with parameters of surgical bleeding". Blood; 84: 3363-70. 1994.
[23]  Hadi, A.A.; M.A. Elderbi and A.H. Mohamed. “Effect of Gum Arabic on Coagulation System of Albino Rats”. International Journal of Pharm. Tech. Research. Vol.2, No.3, pp 1762-1766.2010.
[24]  Prasad, S.S.; S. Kumar; K. Patel; C. Dumater; S.K.Vajpeyee and V.H. Bhavsar. “To Investigate the Action of Ginger-Juice Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Zingiberaceae) on Blood Coagulation Process”. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)Vol 3 No 7 July 2012.
[25]  Rodgers, R.P. and J. Levin. “A critical reappraisal of the bleeding time”. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 16:1-20. 1990.
[26]  Zokian, S. A. Y. “Study of biological efficiency of water and ethanolic extracts of local Equisetum arvense L.” ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies.3(4): 377-384. August 2005.
[27]  Okoli, C.O.; P.A. Akah and A.S. Okoli. “Potentials of leaves of Aspilia Africana (Compositae) in wound care; an experimental evaluation”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Med. 7:24:10.1186/1472. 2007.
[28]  Cipil, H.S.; A. Kosar; A. Kaya; B. Uz; I.C. Haznedaroglu; H. Goker; O. Ozdemir; M. Koroglu; S. Kirazli and H.C. “Firat. In vivo hemostatic effect of the medicinal plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper in rats pretreated with warfarin”. ClinAppl Thromb Hemost. 15: 270-276. 2009.
[29]  Kurt, M.; M. Akdogan; I.K. Onal; M. Kekilli; M. Arhan; A. Shorbagi; S. Aksu; O.K. Kurt and I.C. "Haznedaroglu. Endoscopic topical application of Ankaferd blood stopper for neoplastic gastrointestinal bleeding: A retrospective analysis". Dig Liver Dis, 42: 196-199. 2010.
[30]  Guyton, A.C. and J.C. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology.10th ed. W. B. Saunders Company Philadelphia. 2000. Pp. 200-2015.