Biomedicine and Biotechnology
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Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2022, 7(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/bb-7-1-1

Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS): Hiking the “Urinary Tract” in Nigeria

John Edoka Raphael1, and Okigbeye Danagogo1

1Urology Division, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 15, 2022

Cite this paper:
John Edoka Raphael and Okigbeye Danagogo. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS): Hiking the “Urinary Tract” in Nigeria. Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2022; 7(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/bb-7-1-1


Rain precipitation at the top of a mountain flowing down the valley below is akin to urine formed in the kidneys flowing out through the ureters, bladder and urethra. Flexible ureterorenoscope enables endoscopic “hiking” into the kidney for intrarenal procedures. Lithotripsy is the commonest procedure during retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). This study highlights RIRS with flexible ureterorenoscope and laser lithotripsy for renal calculus and describes our approach in performing this presently uncommonly procedure in our environment. We review our protocol for RIRS, including the clinical, laboratory and CT evaluation of patients presenting with renal stones for RIRS and laser lithotripsy. The counselling method and the preoperative preparation and approach were noted. The equipment and accessories were identified, along with the intraoperative techniques. We then carried out a literature review using Medline, PubMed and Google Scholars search engines and discussed our approach in light of the literature. Retrograde intrarenal surgery offers immense benefits in managing renal calculi. There is a need to improve the capacity of urologists in sub-Saharan Africa in RIRS, which, like mountain hiking, is seldom performed.

Laser lithotripsy Renal calculi Mountain hiking RIRS

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