Journal of Automation and Control
ISSN (Print): 2372-3033 ISSN (Online): 2372-3041 Website: Editor-in-chief: Santosh Nanda
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Automation and Control. 2019, 7(1), 15-24
DOI: 10.12691/automation-7-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Levels of Automation on the Quality of Sugar Cane Juice Extraction: Case of Kenya

Osore E.A.E1, , Ogola J.M1 and Ogot M.M1

1Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Pub. Date: July 10, 2019

Cite this paper:
Osore E.A.E, Ogola J.M and Ogot M.M. Characterization of Levels of Automation on the Quality of Sugar Cane Juice Extraction: Case of Kenya. Journal of Automation and Control. 2019; 7(1):15-24. doi: 10.12691/automation-7-1-3


Quality of sugar from the industry is dependent on the appropriateness of the advanced automation technique that is employed for the extraction of sucrose concentration (brix) from the sugarcane and also, monitoring and regulation of process parameters like the amount of imbibition water, amount of suspended solids, temperature, pH and the leanness of automation technique that determines an optimum extraction. This in turn affects the cost of sugar production. Thus, the need to determine the best automation approach of attaining optimum sucrose concentrations in juice extracts. To achieve this, a comparative analysis of three different levels of automation found in Kenyan Sugar industries was carried out in a case company to assess their impact on the purity of juice extracted and hence the quality of sugar produced. It was found that, levels of automation (LoA) 6 and 5 recorded the highest brix of 96% compared to 75% recorded by level 4. Also, LoA 6 allowed adjustments to achieve improved process balance of juice brix, bagasse moisture, extraction and energy consumption in juice evaporation. Therefore, LoA 6 also called six-sigma automation should be adopted in the sugar industry for optimum sugar quality and reduced cost of production.

levels of automation quality of sugar automation apparent purity and lean

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 7


[1]  Naveen, K. Sanjay, K. Abid, H. Pardeep, G (2013). Implementing lean manufacturing system: ISM approach. Journal of industrial engineering and management, JIEM, 2013 – 6(4): 996-1012.
[2]  Womack, J., & Jones, D.T. (1994). From lean production to the lean enterprise. Harvard Business Review, 72, 93-104.
[3]  Womack, J.P., & Jones, D.T. (1996). Lean Thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York: Simon and Schuster.
[4]  Henderson, B.A., & Larco, J.L. (2003). Lean Transformation: How to change your business into a lean enterprise. Virginia: Oaklea Press.
[5]  Csokasy, D.L., & Parent, P.D. (2007). Managing lean Manufacturing. Society of Manufacturing Engineers: Dearborn, MI TP07PUB2.
[6]  Bhasin, S., & Burcher, P. (2006). Lean viewed as a philosophy. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(1), 57-72.
[7]  Holweg, M., (2007). The genealogy of lean production. Journal of operation management, 25(2), 420-437.
[8]  Huang, S.H., (2013), Additive Manufacturing and Its Societal Impact: A Literature Review. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 67, 1191-1203.
[9]  Shaman, G & Sanjiv, K, J (2013) A literature review of lean manufacturing, International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pg 241-249.
[10]  Upadhye, N., Deshmukh, S. G., & Garg, S. (2010). Lean manufacturing system for medium size manufacturing enterprises: An Indian case. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 5,362-375.
[11]  Seth, D., &Gupta, V. (2005). Application of value stream mapping for lean operations and cycle time reduction: An Indian case study. Production Planning & Control, 16, 44-59.
[12]  Dennis, P. (2007). Lean production simplified. New York: Productivity Press.
[13]  Delkhosh, A. 2012, Lean Automation: Combining Lean with Industrial Robotics in Real Examples, Master thesis, Malardalen University.
[14]  Winroth, M.; Säfsten, K. & Stahre J. (2007). Automation Strategies: Existing Theory or Ad Hoc Decisions? International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 98-114.
[15]  Orr, S. C. 1997, Automation in the Workplace: An Australasian Perspective, Technovation, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 83-105.
[16]  Winroth, M.; Säfsten, K. & Stahre J. (2006). Automation Strategies - Requirements on the Strategy Process. Proceedings of the 39th CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, June 7 – 9, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
[17]  Ribeiro, Luis & Barata, J. (2011). Survey paper: Re-thinking diagnosis for future automation systems: An analysis of current diagnostic practices and their applicability in emerging IT based production paradigms. Computers in Industry. 62. 639-659. 10.1016/j.compind.2011.03.001.
[18]  Harris, C. & Harris, R. 2008, Can Automation Be a Lean Tool? Automation That Enhances Flow Is Lean; Automation That Reduces Uptime and Extends Changeover Is Not Lean, Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 2, pp. 27-34.
[19]  Kochan, A (1998) "Automotive industry looks for lean production", Assembly Automation, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 132-137.
[20]  Jovane, F (2003). Present and Future of Flexible Automation: Towards New Paradigms. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology. 52. 543-560.
[21]  Jackson, M.; Hedelind, M.; Hellstrom, E.; Granlnd, A. & Friedler, N. 2011, Lean Automation: Requirements and Solutions for Efficient Use of Robot Automation in the Swedish Manufacturing Industry., International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 36-44.
[22]  Lindström, V.; Frohm, J. & Winroth M. (2006). Controlling Levels of Automation – A model for Identifying Manufacturing Parameters. Proceedings of the 9th IFAC Symposium on Automated Systems Based on Human Skill and Knowledge. Nancy, France.
[23]  Theodore W.S and Goldhar J.D (1995), Advanced manufacturing and new directions for competitive strategy, Journal of Business Research Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 103-114.
[24]  Hoque, Z. (2000). Just-In-Time Production, Automation, Cost Allocation Practices and Importance of Cost Information: an Empirical Investigation in New Zealand-Based Manufacturing Organizations. The British Accounting Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.133-159.
[25]  Säfsten, K (2007). The content and process of automation strategies. International Journal of Production Economics. 110. 25-38.
[26]  Groover M.P (2000) Automation, production systems, and computer integrated manufacturing (Prentice- Hall Inc)
[27]  Frohm, J.; Lindström, V.; Winroth, M. & Stahre, J. (2006). The Industry's View on Automation in Manufacturing. Automated Systems Based on Human Skill and Knowledge, France.
[28]  Hedelind, M.; Jackson, M. & Hellström, E. (2008a). Robotics for SME´s – Investigating a Mobile, Flexible, and Reconfigurable Robot Solution. Proceedings of the 42nd International Symposium on Robotics.
[29]  Hedelind, M. & Jackson, M. 2011, How to Improve the Use of Industrial Robots in Lean Manufacturing Systems, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 891-905.
[30]  Xiao, Zeqing & Liao, Xiaoping & Guo, Shuaiyin. (2017). Analysis of Sugarcane Juice Quality Indexes. Journal of Food Quality. 2017.
[31]  Dave, Vikas. (2015). Lean Manufacturing: An Approach for Waste Elimination. International Journal of Engineering & Technology Sciences.
[32]  Panpae K (2008). Minimization of sucrose losses in sugar industry by pH and temperature optimization, The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 12, No 3 (2008): 513-519.
[33]  Day J.M. (1996). pH Control in the Sugar Mill Technical Paper, Presented at Instrument Society of America Puerto Rico Section March 1996 San Juan, Puerto Rico.
[34]  Oliverio, J.L (2015). Juice Extraction Systems: Mills and Diffusers - The Brazilian Experience. DEDINI S/A Indústrias de Base Rod. Rio Claro-Piracicaba, km 26, 3, CEP 13412-900, Piracicaba - São Paulo – Brazil.
[35]  Mehrabi, M. G. (2002). Trends and Perspectives in Flexible and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 135-146.
[36]  Säfsten, K et. al (2007). The content and process of automation strategies. International Journal of Production Economics. 110. 25-38.