ISSN (Print): 2373-678X

ISSN (Online): 2373-6771

Content: Volume 2, Issue 3


Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as A Biomarker for Thioacetamide Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rat Liver

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of Chemistry; Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 51-54
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Tousson, Ehab M.M. Ali, ADbdel Halim A. Moustafa, Said S. Moselhey, Karim S. El-Said. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as A Biomarker for Thioacetamide Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rat Liver. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):51-54. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ehab  Tousson, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Email:


Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxin that causes centrilobulal necrosis and nephrotoxic damage following acute administration. Prolonged exposure to TAA can result in bile duct proliferation and liver cirrhosis histologically similar to that caused due to viral hepatitis infection. Hepatic cirrhosis is a complex disease in which several biological, biochemical and chemical alterations are combined, none of these alone being sufficient for diagnosis. The morphological characteristics of the final stages of cirrhosis are well known, but the initial lesions and intermediate stages still have not been fully clarified. Therefore, this work aimed to use of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry as a marker to differentiate between the control liver and hepatotoxicity by thioacetamide intoxicated group in the male rats. Eight rats were equally divided into 2 groups; the first group was the control group and the second group was injected with TAA by 200 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 12 week. Our results showed that the liver of normal control rats negatively react with PCNA-ir, and the liver sections of the rats intoxicated with TAA showed strong positive reaction for PCNA. Further, we recommend the PCNA index a useful marker for hepatotoxicity.



[1]  Friedman S. Liver fibrosis from bench to bedside. J. Hepatol 2003; 38: 38-53.
[2]  Pinzani M, Rombouts K. Liver fibrosis: from the bench to clinical targets. Dig Liver Dis 2004; 36: 231-242
[3]  Sakeran M.I, Zidan N, Rehman H, Aziz AT, Saggu S. Abrogation by Trifolium alexandrinum root extract on hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in rats. Redox Rep 2014; 19 (1): 26-33.
[4]  Saggu S, Sakeran MI, Zidan N, Tousson E, Mohan AF, Rehman H. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Chichorium intybus L.) fruit extract against 4-tert-octylphenol induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2014; 72; 138-146.
[5]  Canbay A, Friedman S, Gores GJ. Apoptosis: the nexus of liver injury and fibrosis. Hepatology 2004; 39: 273-278.
Show More References
[6]  Ramadori G, Saile B. Inflammation, damage repair, immune cells, and liver fibrosis: specific or nonspecific, this is the question. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 997-1000.
[7]  Poli G. Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis: role of oxidative stress. Mol Aspects Med 2000; 21: 49-98.
[8]  Chieli E, Malvaldi G. Role of the microsomal FAD-containing monooxygenase in the liver toxicity of thioacetamide S-oxide. Toxicology 1984; 31: 41-51.
[9]  Torres MI, Fernandez MI, Gil A, Rios A. Dietary nucleotides have cytoprotective properties in rat liver damaged by thioacetamide. Life Sci 1998; 62: 13-22.
[10]  Ledda-Columbano GM, Coni P, Curto M, Giacomoni L, Faa G, Oliverio S, et al. Induction of two different modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, in rat liver after a single dose of thioacetamide. Am J Pathol 1991; 139 (5): 1099-1109.
[11]  Bruck R, Aeed H, Schey R, Matas Z, Raifen R, Zaiger G, Hochman A, Avni Y. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects against thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in rats. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 370-377.
[12]  Edmund CS, Wong Kar-lok H, Tian-chyuan T, Sheng-chou L, Chi-feng. Tetramethylpyrazine protects mice against thioacetamide-induced acute hepatotoxicity. J Biomed Sci 2002; 9: 410-414.
[13]  Bruck R, Aeed H, Avni Y, Shirin H, Matas Z, Shahmurov M, Avinoach I, Zozulya G, Weizman N, Hochman A. Melatonin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B activation and oxidative stress and protects against thioacetamide induced liver damage in rats. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 86-93.
[14]  Shapiro H, Ashkenazi M, Weizman N, Shahmurov M, Aeed H, Bruck R. Curcumin ameliorates acute thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 21 (2): 358-66.
[15]  Waseem NH, Labib K, Nurse P, Lane DP. Isolation and analysis of the fission yeast gene encoding polymerase delta accessory protein PCNA. EMBO J 1992; 11 (13): 5111-5120.
[16]  Madsen P, Celis JE. S-Phase patterns of cyclin (PCNA) antigen staining resemble topographical patterns of DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett 1995; 193 (1): 5-11.
[17]  Zhang H, Xiong Y, Beach D. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21 are components of multiple cell cycle kinase complexes. Mol Biol Cell 1993; 4 (9): 897 906.
[18]  Tousson E, Hafez E, Masoud A, Hassan AA. Abrogation by curcumin on testicular toxicity induced by Cisplatin in rats. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment, 2014, 2 (3): 64-68.
[19]  Hindges R, Hubscher U. DNA polymerase delta, an essential enzyme for DNA transactions. Biol Chem 1997; 378 (5): 345-362.
[20]  Shivji MK, Kenny M, Wood RD. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is required for DNA excision repair. Cell 1992; 69 (2): 367-374.
[21]  Hall PA, Kearsey JM, Coates PJ, Norman DG, Warbrick E, Cox S. Characterisation of the interaction between PCNA and Gadd45. Oncogene 1995; 10: 2427-2433.
[22]  Waga S, Hannon GJ, Beach D, Stillman B. The p21 inhibitor for cyclin-dependent kinases controls DNA replication by interaction with PCNA. Nature 1994; 369: 574-578.
[23]  Zeng L, Kong XT, Su JW, Xia TL, Na YQ, Guo YL. Evaluation of germ-cell kinetics in infertile patients with proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating index. Asian J Androl 2001; 3 (1): 63-66.
[24]  Bancroft JD, Stevens A. Theory and Practice of Histological Technique. 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh, London. 1990.
[25]  Jadon A, Bhadauria M, Shukla S. Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats. J Ethnopharm 2007; 109: 214-218.
[26]  Linden MD, Torres FX, kubus J, Zarbo RJ. Clinical application of morphologic and immunocytochemical assessments of cell proliferation. Am J Clin Pathol 1992; 97 [Suppl]: S4-S13.
[27]  Kurki P, Ogata K, Tan EM. Monoclonal antibodies to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin as probes for proliferating cells by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 1988; 109: 49-59.
[28]  Bravo R, Frank R, Blundell PA, Macdonald-Bravo H. Cyclin/PCNA is the auxillary protein DNA polymerase delta. Nature 1987; 26: 515-517.
[29]  Celis JE, Celis A. Cell cycle dependent variations in the distribution of the nuclear protein cyclin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen in cultured cells: sub-division of S phase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 82: 3262-3266.
[30]  Van Dierendonck JH, Wijsman JH, Keijzer R, van de Velde C, Corneliss C. Cell-cycle-related staining patterns of anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen monoclonal antibodies. Comparison with BrdU labeling and Ki67 staining. Am J Pathol 1991; 138: 1165-1172.
[31]  Sakr S, ElKenawy A, El-Sahara D. Protective effect of licorice on metiram fungicide induced liver injury in mice. Canadian J Pure Appl Sci 2009; 3: 787-93.
Show Less References


Observation of the Status, Distribution, Habitat and Population Estimation of the Indian Spiny Tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827) of Thatta District of Sindh Pakistan

1Department of Zoology, Govt Dehli Science College Hussainabad, Karachi, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Pakistan

3Depratment of Geography, University of Karachi, Pakistan

4Govt Sir- Sayed College.karachi Pakistan

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 46-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M Usman Ali Hashmi, M Zaheer Khan, Nawz ul huda, Karim gabol, Imtyaz. Observation of the Status, Distribution, Habitat and Population Estimation of the Indian Spiny Tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827) of Thatta District of Sindh Pakistan. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):46-50. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: M  Usman Ali Hashmi, Department of Zoology, Govt Dehli Science College Hussainabad, Karachi, Pakistan. Email:,


Present abstraction included the current population, status and distribution, habitat of spiny tailed lizard (Saara hardwickii) in Thatta distric of sindh. Investigation was agitated out on febuary 2012 to febuary 2014. During the present abstraction 247 spiny tailed lizard (S.hardwickii) were captured for the ascertainment their morphomatrics and length mass relationship. Two main habitat were begin in Thatta district which were Jung-shahi and Run- Pathani. Atleast 10 sq/km area of Run-pathani and 13 sq/km in the Jung-shahi area has been observed as the patchy population of spiny tailed lizard.The burrows were aswell advised and begin about 5 anxiety ambit to one and each other burrows. Saara hardwickii already included in the IUCN Red list and CITES appendix. Major threats of the species are added Village size, Villagers, Hakims, Jogi, Laboratory use, Hunting for meat, Hunting for trade, Hunting for oil etc. Present analysis achieve that spiny tailed lizard is a Endangered species of Thatta district of Sindh Pkistan.



[1]  Abdulali,H,1960. Notes on the Spiny-tailed Lizard Uromastyx hardwickii P[Sic] Gray. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 52: 421-423.
[2]  Auffenberg, W,1983. The burrows of V.bengalensis: characteristics and use. Records of the Zoological Survey Of India 80: 375-385
[3]  Crump, M.L And Scott,N.J, Jr, 1994. Visual encounter survey.In: Heyer, W.R.Donnelly, MA; McDiarmid, R.W, Donnelly, Heyek, L.C, and Foster, M.S.(Eds) Measuring and monitoring Biological diversity, Standard Methods for Amphibians Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C: pp 84-91.
[4]  Daniel, J.C, 1983. The book of Indian Reptiles. Bombay Natural History Society, 400 pp.
[5]  Gupta, D.P and Sinha.A.K. 2001. Notes on the Burrows of the V.bengalensis In and Around Agra. Zoos, Print Journal, 16 (12): 651-654.
Show More References
[6]  Hashmi,M,U,A. Khan, M. Z., Amtyaz., Huda, N, 2013.(a) Current Status, Distribution and threats of Varanus Spp. (Varanus bengalensis & Veranus griseus) in Karachi & Thatta of Sindh. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 1(1): 34-38.
[7]  Hashmi,M,U,A. Khan, M. Z, 2013.(b).Studies of Basking Activity in Monitor Lizard( Varanus bengalensis) From Thatta Of Sindh International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies.1(2): 32-34.
[8]  Hashmi, M.U.A. Khan, MZ, 2014. Studies On Some Aspects Of Burrows Pattern Of Monitor lizard (V.bengalensis) in The Karachi And Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. IJISR Vol. 8 No. 2 Sep. 2014, pp. 153-158.
[9]  Khan and Mahmood, N, 2004. Study of population Status and natural history of Agamid lizards of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7: 1942-1945.
[10]  Knapp, A, 2004. An Assessment of the international Trade in spiny tailed Lizard Uromastyx with a focus on the Role of the European Union Technical Report to the European Commission TRAFFIC Europe, European Commission Brussels Belgium, 29pp.
[11]  Khan MZ, Hussain B, Ghalib SA, 2005. Current status of Reptilian Fauna along Karachi coasts with special reference to Marine Turtles J nat Hist wild l 2005; 4(2): 127-130.
[12]  Minton, S.A, 1966. A contribution to the herpetology of the western Pakistan: Bulletin of the American musum and Natural history 134: 27-184.
[13]  Molur,S. and Walker, S, 1998. Report of the Workshop‘Conservation Assessment and Management plan for reptiles of Indian; Bepp.Endangered species project, Zoo Out reach Organization, CBSG, India Coimbatore, India 175pp.
[14]  Madhuri Ramesh & Ishwar,N.M 2013. Status and Distribution of the Indain Spiny-tailed Lizard Uromastyx hardwickii in the Thar Desert, Western Rajastan,Technical Report Publish by Techiewiz.
[15]  Purves, E.H, 1915. The Thorny tailed Lizard.Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 23:780-784.
[16]  Smith,M.A, 1935. The fauna of British India Vol II: Sauria Francis &Taylor, London 440pp.
[17]  Sanjay. Das.K, Sumit Dookia, Kalpana Das, Sushif Datta K., 2013. Ecological observation on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827) (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae) in the Chhapar Wild life Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Journal of the Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3516-3526.
[18]  Wilms, T, 2005. Uromastyx Natural History, Captive care, Breeding, Germany. Herpeton. 143pp.
[19]  Zari, T.A, 1996. Effects of body mass and temperature on standard metabolic rate of the herbivorous desert lizard Uromastyx phylibi. Journal. Arid Env. 39(4): 457-461.
Show Less References


Diversity of Snakes at the University of Dodoma Campus, Tanzania

1School of Biological Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Tanzania

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 41-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rajeev Vats, Ignas Safari. Diversity of Snakes at the University of Dodoma Campus, Tanzania. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):41-45. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Rajeev  Vats, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Tanzania. Email:


Background: Tanzania is internationally recognized as a key country for the conservation of African biological diversity. This country’s rich biodiversity is a reflection of its unique geographical position and climatic variations. The herpetofauna in Tanzania has a wide range of vertical and horizontal distribution. However, the field of herpetology has always received less priority in Tanzania. Methods: Visual encounter survey method was employed for snake collection. The study area was visited almost regularly and all snake species observed were recorded / collected. During regular surveys, searching was conducted in all possible microhabitats such as in shade, under boulder and logs, alongside of streams, agricultural field, forest, bushes and human settlements during day time. The killed snake species were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for further study. Result: A total of 16 snake species belonging to 12 genera and 7 families were documented at the campus of the University of Dodoma from February 2009 to April 2014. Out of all the species, 5 belong to family Colubridae,6 to Lamprophiidae andone species each belong to family Elapidae, Viperidae, Atractaspididae, Boidae, and Pythonidae. Among the recorded species3 are deadly venomous, 7 are mild venomous and the remaining 6 are non-venomous. Conclusions: Although the most common snake at the campus is a highly venomous snake, the puff adder, no fatalities associated with snake bites were recorded at the university during the study period. For the conservation of snakes in Tanzania, public awareness regarding the importance of snake to keep the ecosystem in balanced condition is essential. The snake biodiversity of Tanzania is unparalleled on mainland Africa, and nowhere is this more apparent than in its forest herpetofauna. Though, the endemics for which the nation is so renowned are seriously threatened by habitat loss and overexploitation for the wildlife trade.



[1]  Parker H.W. Dr. Karl Jordan’s expedition to South West Africa and Angola. Herpetological Collections. Novit. Zool. 1936, 40: 115-146.
[2]  Laurant R.F. Apercu de la biogeographie des batracienset des reptiles de la region des grandslacs. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1954, 79(4): 290-310.
[3]  Loveridge A. On a fourth collection of reptiles, mostly taken in Tanganyika territory by Mr.C. J. P. Ionides. Proc. zool. Soc. London, 1959, 133(1): 29-44.
[4]  Rand A.S. A new subspecies of Chameleojacksoni Boulenger and a key to the species of three-horned chamaeleons. Breviora, 1958, 99: 1-8.
[5]  Rand A.S. Notes on the Chamaeleobitaeniatuscomplex. Bull. Mus. com. Zool., Harvard, 1963, 130(1): 1-29.
Show More References
[6]  Vesey-Fitzgerald D.F. A guide to the snakes of the Tanzania and Kenya borderlands. J. E. Africa nat. Hist. Soc. & Natn. Mus., 1975, 149: 1-26.
[7]  Broadley D.G. & Howell K.M. A Check List of the Reptiles of Tanzania, with Synoptic Keys. Syntarsus, 1991, 1: 1-70.
[8]  White, F. The Vegetation of Africa. Paris: United Nations, UNESCO, 1983. 365 pp.
[9]  Spawls, S., Howell, K., Drewes, R., & Ashe, J. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Academic Press: London & San Diego. 2004.
[10]  Spawls S, and Branch B. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa.Ralph Curtis Books. Dubai: Oriental Press. 192 pp.
[11]  McDiarmid, R.W., Campbell, J.A. & Touré, T.A. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference, vol. 1. The Herpetologists’ League, Washington, DC. 1999.
[12]  Sharma, B.D. Snakes: The Specialized Reptiles: in Sharma. In Snakes in India: a sourcebook (Eds. B.D. Sharma and T.K. Kumari). Asiatic Publishing House, Delhi, India. 1999.
[13]  Razzetti Edoardo and Msuya C. A. Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Varese (Italy) by Pubblinova Edizioni Negri and IstitutoOikos.2002.
[14]  Leirs, H. Management of rodents in crops: The Pied Piper and his orchestra. In G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs, & D. M. Spratt (Eds.), Rats, mice and people: Rodent biology and management (pp. 183-190). Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. 2003.
Show Less References