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Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as A Biomarker for Thioacetamide Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rat Liver

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of Chemistry; Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 51-54
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Tousson, Ehab M.M. Ali, ADbdel Halim A. Moustafa, Said S. Moselhey, Karim S. El-Said. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as A Biomarker for Thioacetamide Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rat Liver. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):51-54. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ehab  Tousson, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Email:


Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxin that causes centrilobulal necrosis and nephrotoxic damage following acute administration. Prolonged exposure to TAA can result in bile duct proliferation and liver cirrhosis histologically similar to that caused due to viral hepatitis infection. Hepatic cirrhosis is a complex disease in which several biological, biochemical and chemical alterations are combined, none of these alone being sufficient for diagnosis. The morphological characteristics of the final stages of cirrhosis are well known, but the initial lesions and intermediate stages still have not been fully clarified. Therefore, this work aimed to use of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry as a marker to differentiate between the control liver and hepatotoxicity by thioacetamide intoxicated group in the male rats. Eight rats were equally divided into 2 groups; the first group was the control group and the second group was injected with TAA by 200 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 12 week. Our results showed that the liver of normal control rats negatively react with PCNA-ir, and the liver sections of the rats intoxicated with TAA showed strong positive reaction for PCNA. Further, we recommend the PCNA index a useful marker for hepatotoxicity.



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Observation of the Status, Distribution, Habitat and Population Estimation of the Indian Spiny Tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827) of Thatta District of Sindh Pakistan

1Department of Zoology, Govt Dehli Science College Hussainabad, Karachi, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Pakistan

3Depratment of Geography, University of Karachi, Pakistan

4Govt Sir- Sayed College.karachi Pakistan

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 46-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M Usman Ali Hashmi, M Zaheer Khan, Nawz ul huda, Karim gabol, Imtyaz. Observation of the Status, Distribution, Habitat and Population Estimation of the Indian Spiny Tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827) of Thatta District of Sindh Pakistan. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):46-50. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: M  Usman Ali Hashmi, Department of Zoology, Govt Dehli Science College Hussainabad, Karachi, Pakistan. Email:,


Present abstraction included the current population, status and distribution, habitat of spiny tailed lizard (Saara hardwickii) in Thatta distric of sindh. Investigation was agitated out on febuary 2012 to febuary 2014. During the present abstraction 247 spiny tailed lizard (S.hardwickii) were captured for the ascertainment their morphomatrics and length mass relationship. Two main habitat were begin in Thatta district which were Jung-shahi and Run- Pathani. Atleast 10 sq/km area of Run-pathani and 13 sq/km in the Jung-shahi area has been observed as the patchy population of spiny tailed lizard.The burrows were aswell advised and begin about 5 anxiety ambit to one and each other burrows. Saara hardwickii already included in the IUCN Red list and CITES appendix. Major threats of the species are added Village size, Villagers, Hakims, Jogi, Laboratory use, Hunting for meat, Hunting for trade, Hunting for oil etc. Present analysis achieve that spiny tailed lizard is a Endangered species of Thatta district of Sindh Pkistan.



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Diversity of Snakes at the University of Dodoma Campus, Tanzania

1School of Biological Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Tanzania

American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(3), 41-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rajeev Vats, Ignas Safari. Diversity of Snakes at the University of Dodoma Campus, Tanzania. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(3):41-45. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Rajeev  Vats, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Tanzania. Email:


Background: Tanzania is internationally recognized as a key country for the conservation of African biological diversity. This country’s rich biodiversity is a reflection of its unique geographical position and climatic variations. The herpetofauna in Tanzania has a wide range of vertical and horizontal distribution. However, the field of herpetology has always received less priority in Tanzania. Methods: Visual encounter survey method was employed for snake collection. The study area was visited almost regularly and all snake species observed were recorded / collected. During regular surveys, searching was conducted in all possible microhabitats such as in shade, under boulder and logs, alongside of streams, agricultural field, forest, bushes and human settlements during day time. The killed snake species were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for further study. Result: A total of 16 snake species belonging to 12 genera and 7 families were documented at the campus of the University of Dodoma from February 2009 to April 2014. Out of all the species, 5 belong to family Colubridae,6 to Lamprophiidae andone species each belong to family Elapidae, Viperidae, Atractaspididae, Boidae, and Pythonidae. Among the recorded species3 are deadly venomous, 7 are mild venomous and the remaining 6 are non-venomous. Conclusions: Although the most common snake at the campus is a highly venomous snake, the puff adder, no fatalities associated with snake bites were recorded at the university during the study period. For the conservation of snakes in Tanzania, public awareness regarding the importance of snake to keep the ecosystem in balanced condition is essential. The snake biodiversity of Tanzania is unparalleled on mainland Africa, and nowhere is this more apparent than in its forest herpetofauna. Though, the endemics for which the nation is so renowned are seriously threatened by habitat loss and overexploitation for the wildlife trade.



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