American Journal of Zoological Research
ISSN (Print): 2373-678X ISSN (Online): 2373-6771 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014, 2(2), 37-40
DOI: 10.12691/ajzr-2-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Studies on the Resistance of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata) to Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) Infestations

Mogbo T. C.1, , Okeke T. E.1 and Akunne C. E.1

1Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

Pub. Date: March 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mogbo T. C., Okeke T. E. and Akunne C. E.. Studies on the Resistance of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata) to Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) Infestations. American Journal of Zoological Research. 2014; 2(2):37-40. doi: 10.12691/ajzr-2-2-3


Three cowpea varieties namely: Kafanji, Brown variety and Ex-potiskum were used in this study to test their resistance on weevil infestation. Cowpea samples of 60grams were measured from each variety and were artificially infested with different weevil densities made up of male and female ratios of 5:10, 10:15 and 15:15. The samples had three replicates and a control treatment each. These were allowed to stand on the shelves without disturbance, thus making it possible for the weevils to mate and oviposit naturally. The results were analysed statistically and the differences between the treatments with respect to weight loss and adult emergence were significant (P>0.05) and the damages were also closely related to the infestation density increasing with the densities. Kafanji suffered more damage while the Brown variety and Ex-potiskum suffered less damage. This indicates that Ex-potiskum and Brown-variety exhibits more resistance qualities to the weevil attack than Kafanji which is more susceptible to the weevil attack. The physical as well as the chemical characteristics of the seeds were also found to influence the growth and development of the weevil forming the basis for resistance in the varieties. Breeding programmes utilizing the resistance characters in certain varieties are therefore suggested.

oviposition grains Ex potiskum kafanji

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Abate, T.; Ajeigbe, H.; Boukar, O.; Fatokun, C.; Kamara, A.; Ndjeunga, J. and Ntare, B. (2011). Grain Legumes of Nigeria. Bulletin of Tropical Legume p4.
[2]  Lowenberg-DeBoer, J. and Ibro, G. (2008) A Study Of The Cowpea Value Chain In Kano State, Nigeria, From A Pro-Poor And Gender Perspective. A paper commissioned by the GATE Project p16.
[3]  Ndong A., Kébé K. H., Thiaw C. H., Diome T. and Sembène M. (2012). Genetic Distribution of the Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera, Bruchidae) Populations in Different Agro-Ecological Areas of West Africa. J Anim Sci Adv 2012, 2(7): 616-630.
[4]  Brisibe, E. A, Adugbo, S. E, Ekanem, U, Brisibe, F. and Figueira, G. M (2011) Controlling Bruchid Pests of Stored Cowpea Seeds with Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua and Two Other Common Botanicals. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(47), pp. 9586-9592.
[5]  Ghaly A. E, and Alkoaik F. N (2010). Extraction of Protein from Common Plant Leaves for Use as Human Food. American Journal of Applied Sci. 7(3): 323-334.
[6]  Abebe, G, Hattar, B, At-tawah, A. (2005). Nutrient availability as affected by manure application to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) on Calacarious soils. Journal of Agric. Soc Sci. 1: 1-6.
[7]  Dugje, I. Y., L. O. Omoigui, F Ekeleme, A. Y. Kamara, and H. Ajeigbe. (2009) Farmers’ Guide to Cowpea Production in West Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. p20.
[8]  Adeyemi, S. A.; Lewu, F. B; Adebola, P. O.; Bradley, G. and Okoh, A. I. (2012). Protein content variation in cowpea genotypes (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa as affected by mineralised goat manure. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 7(35), pp. 4943-4947.
[9]  Hall A. E, Cisse N, Thiaw S, Elawad H. O. A, Ehlers J. D, (2003) Development of cowpea cultivars and germplasm by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Field Crops Res 82: 103-134.
[10]  Baidoo, P. K.; Mochiah, M. B. and Owusu –Akyaw, M. (2010). The Effect of Time of Harvest on the Damage Caused by the Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research Vol. 1(3), pp. 24-28.
[11]  Asare, A. T., Bhavani S. Gowda, Isaac K. A. Galyuon, Lawrence M. Aboagye, Jemmy F. Takrama, Francis K. Padi, and Timko, M.P.(2011) Identification of Potential Sources of Striga Resistance In Cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp.] accessions from Ghana.
[12]  Yeap, S. K., Ho W. Y., Beh B. K., Liang W. S., Ky H., Yousr A. H. N. and Alitheen N.B.(2010). Vernonia amygdalina, an Ethnoveterinary and Ethnomedical Used Green Vegetable with Multiple Bioactivities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(25): 2787-2812.
[13]  Magaji, B. T., Dike, M. C., Amatobi, C.I. and Onu, I. (2005). Comparative Efficacy of Some Plant Oils for the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Stored Cowpea: M.Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
[14]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2010).
[15]  Ofuya, T. I; Idoko, J. E. and Akintewe, L. A (2008). Ability of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky [Coleoptera: Curculonidae] from Four Locations In Nigeria To Infest And Damage Three Varieties Of Maize, Zea mays L. Nigerian Journal of Entomology 25:34-39
[16]  Oke O. A and Olajire T. E. (2012). Determination of Insect Pests on Planted Cowpea Varities at Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Online International Journal of Microbiology Research, 1(1) pp. 1-7.
[17]  Redden, R. J. and McGuire, J. (1983). The genetic evaluation of bruchid resistance in seeds of cowpea. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 34, 707-715.
[18]  Jackai, L. E. N. and Asante, S. K. (2003). A case for the standardization of protocols used in screening cowpea, Vigna unguiculata for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 39:251-263.
[19]  Gwinner J., Harnish R., Muck O. (1996): Manual on the Prevention of Post Harvest Grain Loss. GTZ, Eschborn.
[20]  Swella G. B. and Mushobozy D. M. K. (2007): Evaluation of the efficacy of protectants against cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)) on cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Plant Protect. Sci., 43:68-72.
[21]  Giga, D. P. (1995). Progress in Bean Bruchid research in the SADC region: Journal of Appl Sci. in Southern Africa, 1, 107-112.
[22]  Wolfson, J. L., Shade, R. E., Mentzer, P. E., and Murdock, L. L. (1991). Efficacy of ash for controlling infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Stored Cowpeas. Journal of Stored Products Research, 27(4):239-243pp.
[23]  Abdel-Sabour, A. G., Obiadalla-Ali, H. A., and AbdelRehim, K. A. (2010). Genetic and Chemical Analyses of six Cowpea and two Phaseolus Bean species differing in Resistance to Weevil Pest. J. Crop Sci. Biotech. 13(1):53-60.
[24]  Khokhar M. and Gupta A. S. (1974). Relative resistance of some varietiesof wheat to Sitophilus oryza (L.) and Rhizoperthadominica (F.) at different temperatures. Bull. Grains Tech.12: 117-123pp
[25]  Nwanze, K. F., Horber, E., Pitts, C. W. P. (1975). Evidence of ovipositional preference of Callosobruchus maculatus for cowpea varieties. Environmental Entomology. 4: 409-412.
[26]  Akintola A .J, Oyegoke O. O. 2004. Physico-Chemical Properties of Ten Cowpea Lines on Resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus (Walp. ). Ethiop J. Sci. 27: 71-74
[27]  Singh, B. B., Singh, S. R. and Adjadi, O. (1985). Bruchid resistance in cowpea. Crop Science 25, 736-739.
[28]  Lale, N. E. S. and Kolo, A. A. (1998). Susceptibility of eight improved local cultivars of cowpea to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management 44: 25-27.
[29]  Maina, Y. T. and Lale, N. E. S. (2005). Comparative resistance of local cultivars of sorghum and improved varieties of maize to Sitophilus zeamais infestation in storage. Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Applied Biology 6 (1): 61-64.
[30]  Maina, Y. T. and Dlamini, C. G. (2009). Sreening of maize (Zea mays) varieties to maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais infestation in Swaziland. Uniswa Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 12 (2): 83-88.
[31]  Onyido, A. E.; Zeibe, C. C.; Okonkwo, N. J.; Ezugbo-Nwobi, I. K.; Egbuche, C. M.; Udemezue, O. I.; and Ezeanya, L. C. (2011). Damage Caused by the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) on Different Legume Seeds on Sale in Awka and Onitsha Markets, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. African Research Review: An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. 5(4):116-123pp.