ISSN (Print): 2333-4797

ISSN (Online): 2333-4819

Content: Volume 1, Issue 4


A Brief Note on the Temperature-Dependent Photocatalytic Degradation of Congo Red Using Zinc Oxide

1Chemistry Department, University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, USA

American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(4), 66-69
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jacob White, Whitney Smith. A Brief Note on the Temperature-Dependent Photocatalytic Degradation of Congo Red Using Zinc Oxide. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(4):66-69. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-2.

Correspondence to: Jacob  White, Chemistry Department, University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, USA. Email:


Congo red, a conjugated diazo dye which is a derivative of benzidine and napthionic acid, has experienced commercial success because of its ability to dye cotton easily. The unregulated disposal of textile dyes, such as Congo red, has created a challenge for environmental chemists to determine effective, inexpensive treatment processes for remediating contaminated water. Studies involving semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have investigated their affects on wastewaters after being irradiated. However, few reports have described the influence temperature has on such systems. The objective of this study was to briefly characterize, via UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques, the temperature-dependency of the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red using zinc oxide and an inexpensive radiation source. The results indicate that the rate of degradation is catalytically dependent, photo-induced, and potentially temperature dependent with the greatest rate of degradation observed in trials conducted at low (~5°C) temperature. The results may also suggest the prevalence of aggregate dye formation at elevated (~40°C) temperature, although photocatalytic degradation is likely to occur concurrently.



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Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Surface Water in the Central Part of Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria

1Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti

American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(4), 56-65
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. O Talabi, O. L. Afolagboye, M. N. Tijani, J. A. Aladejana, A. K. Ogundana. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Surface Water in the Central Part of Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(4):56-65. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-1.

Correspondence to: A.  O Talabi, Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Email:


Surface water is an important water resource for drinking and irrigation purposes in the central part of Ekiti-State. The water bodies are used with little attention to their quality status in addition to increased threat of anthropogenic contamination in view of rapid growth in population. The objectives of this study were to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water, its hydrochemical controls and suitability for drinking and irrigation. Forty surface water samples were investigated. Field measurements of physical parameters were preceded by chemical analyses of the samples for major ions concentrations and bacteriological content. The surface water has pH ranging from 8.3 – 9.6 implying that the water was barely alkaline. Electrical conductivity [<205 µS/cm] and total dissolved solids [<154 mg/l] were low suggesting low-mineralised freshwater. The relative abundance of major ions [mg/L] was Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ for cations and Cl- >SO42-> HCO3->NO3- for anions. Major ion concentrations were low and within the WHO guidelines for drinking water indicating chemical suitability of surface water. The water samples tested positive to total bacterial count and E – coli with median values of 31.50 and 8.00 (cfu/100ml) respectively. Main water types and proportions were [70 %] mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl-, [20%] Na+-Cl- and [10%] Ca2+-Cl-. Predominant processes influencing water chemistry were incongruent dissolution/weathering of silicate minerals and cation-exchange of Na+ in rocks for Ca2+ in water. The low major ion concentrations indicated low water-rock interactions and short residence time. Irrigation quality indices [Sodium absorption ratio, salinity hazard, Kelly ratio and permeability index] revealed that the analysed water was suitable for irrigation.



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