American Journal of Water Resources:

Home » Journal » AJWR » Archive » Volume 1, Issue 3

Article

Challenges in Forward Osmosis of Seawater Using Ammonium Bicarbonate as Osmotic Agent

1PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency, Singapore

2Imperial College London, UK


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 51-55
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jian-Jun Qin, Gayathri Danasamy, Winson C.L. Lay, Kiran A Kekre. Challenges in Forward Osmosis of Seawater Using Ammonium Bicarbonate as Osmotic Agent. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):51-55. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-6.

Correspondence to: Jian-Jun  Qin, PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency, Singapore. Email: qin_jianjun@pub.gov.sg

Abstract

This study aimed at exploring whether product quality, membrane fouling and salt reverse flow would be challenges in forward osmosis (FO) of seawater using NH43 as an osmotic agent. Experiments were conducted with a lab scale FO system containing effective membrane area of 95 cm2. Synthetic seawater (SSW) with 3.5-7.0 mg/L boron and a real seawater (RSW) were used as feeds and 1.5-2.5 M NH43 as draw solutions. The experimental operation could be stablized within 0.5 h. For the SSW, boron rejection ranged of 47-85% and increased with increasing water flux while boron in the permeate was greater than 0.8mg/L. Water flux with RSW was 3 times lower than that with SSW, indicating that there might be serious membrane fouling with RSW. It was surprisingly observed that non volatile organic in the FO permeate was 8-10 mg/L, which was from the draw solution although NH43 used was analytical grade. Additional water cost would be $0.4/m3 because of NH43 loss. It was concluded that product quality in terms of high TOC contaminant in NH43 and low boron removal, serious fouling with RSW and salt reverse flow could be challenges for the FO process using NH43 as osmotic agent for seawater desalination.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Cath, T.Y., Childress, A. E. and Elimelech, M., “Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments,” J. Membr. Sci., 281, 70-87, 2006.
 
[[2]  Qin, J.J., Chen, S., Oo, M. H., Kekre, K. A., Cornelissen, E.R., Ruiken, C.J., “Experimental studies and modeling on concentration polarization in forward osmosis,” Water Science Technology, 61, 2897-2904, 2010.
 
[[3]  Qin, J.J., Lay, W. C.L. and Kekre, K. A., “Recent developments and future challenges of forward osmosis for desalination: A review,” Desalination & Water Treatment, 39, 123-136, 2012.
 
[[4]  Global Water Intelligence, Water Desalination Report, Vol. 43 No. 23, page 1, 18 June 2007.
 
[[5]  Khaydarov, R. A., Khaydarov, R. R., “Solar powered direct osmosis desalination,” Desalination, 217,225, 2007.
 
Show More References
[6]  McCutcheon, J.R., McFinnis, R.L. and Elimelech, M., “A novel ammonia-carbon dioxide forward (direct) osmosis desalination process,” Desalination, 174, 1-11, 2005.
 
[7]  McCutcheon, J.R., McGinnis, R.L., Elimelech, M., “Desalination by a novel ammonia–carbon dioxide forward osmosis process: influence of draw and feed solution concentrations on process performance,” J. Membr. Sci., 278,114, 2006.
 
[8]  McGinnis, R. L. and Elimelech, M., “Energy requirements of ammonia–carbon dioxide forward osmosis desalination,” Desalination, 207 370-382, 2007.
 
[9]  Elimelech, M. and Phillip, W. A., “The future of seawater desalination: Energy, technology, and the environment,” Science, 333 712-717, 2011.
 
[10]  Ng, H.Y., Tang, W., Wong, W.S., “Performance of forward (direct) osmosis process; membrane structure and transport phenomenon,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 2408, 2006.
 
[11]  Tan C.H. and Ng, H.Y., “A novel hybrid forward osmosis – nanofiltration (FO-NF) process for seawater desalination: Draw solution selection and system configuration,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 13,356, 2010.
 
[12]  Low, S.C.,Preliminary studies of seawater desalination using forward osmosis,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 7, 41, 2009.
 
[13]  Cath, T. Y., “Osmotically and thermally driven membrane processes for enhancement of water recovery in desalination processes,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 15,279, 2010.
 
[14]  Achilli, A., Cath, T.Y., Childress, A.E., “Selection of inorganic-based draw solutions for forward osmosis applications,” J. Membr. Sci., 364,233-241, 2010.
 
[15]  Hancock, N.H. and Cath, T.Y., “Solute coupled diffusion in osmotically driven processes,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 43,6769, 2009.
 
[16]  Phuntsho, S., Shon, H. K., Hong, S., Lee, S, Vigneswaran, S., “A novel low energy fertilizer driven forward osmosis desalination for direct fertilization: Evaluating the performance of fertilizer draw solutions,” J. Membr. Sci., 375, 172, 2011.
 
[17]  Danasamy, G., “Sustainability of Seawater Desalination Technology – the study of forward osmosis as a new alternative,” Master Thesis, Imperial College London, 2009.
 
[18]  McCutcheon, J.R., Elimelech, M. “Influence of concentrative and dilutive internal concentration polarization on flux behaviour in forward osmosis,” J. Membr. Sci., 284,237, 2006.
 
[19]  Qin, J. J., Oo, M. H., Tao, G., Cornelissen, E.R., Ruiken, C.J., de Korte, K.F., Wessels, L.P., Kekre, K. A. “Baseline study on osmotic membrane bioreactor: Optimization of operating conditions in forward osmosis,” The Open Chem. Eng. Journal, 3, 27, 2009.
 
[20]  Tang, C. Y., She, Q. H., Lay, W. C. L., Wang, R., Fane, A. G., “Coupled effects of internal concentration polarization and fouling on flux behavior of forward osmosis membranes during humic acid filtration,” J. Membr. Sci., 354, 123-133, 2010.
 
[21]  Jin, X., Tang, C. Y., Gu, Y., She, Q. and Qi, S., “Boric acid permeation in forward osmosis membrane processes: Modeling, experiments, and implications,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 2323-2330, 2011.
 
[22]  Mane, P.P., Park, P.K., Hyung, H., Brown, J.C. and Kim, J.H., “Modeling boron rejection in pilot- and full-scale reverse osmosis desalination processes,” J. Membr. Sci., 138, 119-127, 2009.
 
[23]  Cengeloglu, Y., Arslan, G., Tor, A., Kocak, I. and Dursun, N., “Removal of boron from water by using reverse osmosis,” Separation and Purification Technology, 64,141-146, 2008.
 
[24]  Koseoglu, H., Kabay, N., Yüksel, M. and Kitis, M., “The removal of boron from model solutions and seawater using reverse osmosis membranes,” Desalination, 223, 12-133, 2008.
 
[25]  Prats, D., Chillon-Arias, M.F. and Rodriguez-Pastor, M., “Analysis of the influence of pH and pressure on the elimination of boron in reverse osmosis,” Desalination, 128, 269-273, 2000.
 
[26]  Magara, Y., Tabata, A., Kohki, M., Kawasaki, M.and Hirose, M., “Development of boron reduction system for sea water desalination,” Desalination, 118, 25-34, 1998.
 
[27]  WHO, Boron in drinking water. 2009.
 
Show Less References

Article

Remote Sensing Based Unravelling of Landcover and Groundwater Scenarios Relationships for the Middle Save Sub Catchment of South Eastern Zimbabwe

1School of Natural Science, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 45-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
David Chikodzi. Remote Sensing Based Unravelling of Landcover and Groundwater Scenarios Relationships for the Middle Save Sub Catchment of South Eastern Zimbabwe. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):45-50. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-5.

Correspondence to: David  Chikodzi, School of Natural Science, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo. Email: dchikodzi@hotmail.com

Abstract

The impact of landcover/landuse type on the groundwater scenarios has not been investigated extensively in Zimbabwe due to lack of groundwater observation data. The research was aimed at using remote sensing to unravel the groundwater scenarios under different landcover/landuse types in the middle Save catchment of Zimbabwe. The research used the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) satellite to measure regional groundwater fluctuations from 2004-2010. Landsat satellite images were also used to classify the study area into three landcover/landuse types: grasslands, forests and shrublands. The results showed that grasslands occupy 59% of the land area, forests occupy 22% of the place and shrublands cover19% of the study area. On seasonal groundwater scenarios, areas under forests had the highest magnitude of groundwater recharge (up to 20cm) and also the highest levels of groundwater lose (up to -20cm). Shrublands had recharge levels of up 13cm and loses of about -14cm. Grasslands had the least recharge of about 6cm at peak and the lowest magnitude of groundwater loses of about -7cm. The research also showed that from 2004- 2010 groundwater levels have been in a state of decline in the study area. The research concluded that landcover/landuse affects only seasonal not year on groundwater fluctuations. Geographical information systems and remote sensing were shown to be capable of producing groundwater scenarios of the study area in the absence of systematic ground based groundwater observations.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Foster S D and Chilton P J. Groundwater: the processes and global significance of aquifer degradation Phil. Trans. R. Soc.B 258 1957-72. 2003.
 
[[2]  Shah, T., D. Molden, R. Sakthivadivel, and D. Seckler .The global groundwater situation: Overview and opportunities and challenges, Int.Water Manage. Inst., Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2000.
 
[[3]  Anayah F. and Kaluarachchi, J.J. Groundwater resources of northern Ghana: Initial assessment of data availability. Utah State University College of Engineering Report, December 2009.
 
[[4]  Calder I.R .Hydrologic effects of land-use change. In: Maidment DR (ed.) Handbook of Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York.1993. 13.1-13.50.
 
[[5]  Dobson A.P., A.D. Bradshaw en A.J.M. Baker.Hopes for the future: Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Science (277), 25 July 1997: 515-522.
 
Show More References
[6]  Gautam A.P, Webb E.L, Shivakoti G.P and Zoebisch M.A .Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in a mountain watershed in Nepal. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 99 83-96. 2003.
 
[7]  Kachhwala T.S. Temporal monitoring of forest land for change detection and forest cover mapping through satellite remote sensing. Proc. 6th Asian Conf. on Remote Sensing, 21-26 November 1985, Hyderabad. 77-83.
 
[8]  Rogan J and Chen D.M. Remote sensing technology for mapping and monitoring land-cover and land-use change. Prog. Plann. 61 301-325. 2004.
 
[9]  Yuan, F, Sawaya K.E, Loeffelholz B.C and Bauer M.E. Land cover classification and change analysis of the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area by multitemporal Landsat remote sensing. Remote Sens. Environ. 98 317-328. 2005.
 
[10]  Rodell, M., J. Chen, H. Kato, J. S. Famiglietti, J. Nigro, and C. R. Wilson. Estimating GW storage changes in the Mississippi River basin (USA) using GRACE, Hydrogeol. J., 15(1), 159-166, 2006.
 
[11]  Dong Y, Forster B and Ticehurst C. Radar backscatter analysis for urban environments. Int. J. Remote Sens. 18 (6) 1351-1364. 1997.
 
[12]  Star J.L, Estes J.E and McGwire K.C. Integration of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing. Cambridge University Press, New York.1997.
 
[13]  Chilar J. Land cover mapping of large areas from satellites: status and research priorities. Int. J. Remote Sens. 21 (67) 1093-1114. 2000.
 
[14]  Bosch, J.M. and Hewlett, J.D. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology, 55: 3-23. 1982.
 
[15]  Brown A.E, Zhang L, McMahon T.A, Western A.W and Vertessy R.A. A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation. J. Hydrol. 310 28-61. 2005.
 
[16]  Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. Ecohydrology: a hydrologic perspective of climate-soil-vegetation dynamics. Water Resour. Res. 36 (1), 3-9. 2000.
 
[17]  Laio, F., Porporato, A., Fenandeq-Illescas, C.P., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic and response to water stress IV. Discussions of real cases. Adv. Water Resour. 24 (7), 745-762. 2001.
 
[18]  Guswa, A.J., Celia, M.A., Rodrigues-Iturbe, I. Models of soil moisture dynamics in ecohydrology: a comparative study.Water Resour. Res. 38 (9), 1166, 2002.
 
[19]  ITC. ILWIS user manual. International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC), Enschede, The Netherlands. 2005.
 
[20]  NASA. Grace Satellite Data, http://www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/RL05.html/. http://gracetellus.ipl.nasa.gov. 2012.
 
[21]  Tapley, B. D., S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, and M. M. Watkins. GRACE measurements of mass variability in the Earth system, Science, 305(5683), 503-505, 2004.
 
[22]  Strassberg G, Scanlon BR and Rodell M.‘Comparison of seasonal terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE with groundwater-level measurements from the High Plains Aquifer (USA)’, Geophysical Research Letters 34:L14402, 2007.
 
[23]  Syed, T. H., J. S. Famiglietti, J. Chen, M. Rodell, S. I. Seneviratne, P. Viterbo, and C. R.Wilson. Total basin discharge for the Amazon and Mississippi River basins from GRACE and a land-atmosphere water balance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24404, 2005.
 
[24]  Rodell, M. and J. S. Famiglietti. The Potential for Satellite-Based Monitoring of Groundwater Storage Changes Using GRACE: The High Plains Aquifer, Central U. S., J. Hydrol., 263, 245-256. 2002.
 
[25]  Wahr, J., S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, and I. Velicogna. Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L11501, 2004.
 
[26]  Swenson, S., J. Famiglietti, J. Basara, and J. Wahr. Estimating profile soil moisture and groundwater variations using GRACE and Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data, Water Resour. Res., 44, W01413, 2008.
 
[27]  Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., D’Odorico, P., Porporato, A., Ridolfi, L. On the spatial and temporal links between vegetation,climate, and soil moisture. Water Resour. Res. 35 (12), 3709-3722.1999.
 
[28]  Campbell, B., du Toit, R. and Attwell. C. Relationship between the environment and basic needs and satisfaction in the Save Catchment. University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1988. pp119.
 
[29]  Elwell, H.A. The degrading soil and water resources of the communal areas. The Zimbabwe Sciences News, 17(9/10): 145-147. 1983.
 
[30]  Scoones, I. Land degradation and livestock production in Zimbabwe’s Communal areas. Land degradation and rehabilitation, 3 99-113. 1992.
 
[31]  Whitlow, J.R. An assessment of cultivated lands in Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 1963-1977. The Zimbabwe Science News, 13(12): 286-290. 1979.
 
[32]  Butterworth, J.A. The hydrology of a dryland catchment in southern Zimbabwe and the effects of climatic and land use change on shallow groundwater resources. PhD thesis, Department of Soil Science, University of Reading. 1997.
 
[33]  Lovell, C. Productive water points: Guidelines on integrated planning for rural water supply, ITDG Publishing.2000.
 
[34]  Butterworth, J. A., Macdonald, D. M. J., Bromley, J., Simmonds, L. P., Lovell, C. J., and Mugabe, F. Hydrological processes and water resources management in a dryland environment III: Groundwater recharge and recession in a shallow weathered aquifer, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 3, 345-351, 1999.
 
Show Less References

Article

Designated Protected Marsh within Mesopotamia: Water Quality

1Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

2Department of Fisheries, College of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 39-44
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ali Abdul Zahra Douabul, Hamid Talib Al-SAAD, Dawood Salman Abdullah, Nadir Abid Salman. Designated Protected Marsh within Mesopotamia: Water Quality. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):39-44. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-4.

Correspondence to: Ali  Abdul Zahra Douabul, Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. Email: adouabul@mscbasra.org

Abstract

This survey was carried out during wet and dry seasons in three stations represent the upper, middle and lower reaches of Huweza Marsh, Southern Iraq. Physical and chemical parameters including the natural water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, bicarbonates and total hardness along with nutrients levels were monitored for the period from July 2007 to April 2008. Results showed that water quality parameters of Huweza marsh are all within the standard criteria for freshwater habitats with pronounced seasonal variation between dry and wet seasons. Significant differences were also recorded between upper and lower stations in the marsh which can be attributed to local conditions. In general all parameters are within the tolerance limits of fresh water plants and animals except water salinity which needs to be monitored seasonally and spatially, as variations are noticed between various parts of the marsh and at different seasons. Some recorded levels exceed the normal favorable levels for freshwater fauna and flora. The marsh water is rich in nutrient especially nitrate and phosphate, reflecting high productivity in similar manner to other Iraqi marshes. Results were compared with other studies in the area. The present survey can act as a basis for future monitoring and recovery of the marshland ecosystem.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Bedair, H.M., Al-Saad, H.T. and Salman, N.A. (2006) Iraqs southern marshes something to be conserved. A case study. Marsh Bulletin.
 
[[2]  UNEP (2001) The Eden Again project. Restoration of the Mesopotamian Marshlands. UNEP. (2007) Water quality monitoring programmed in the Iraqi marshlands .April-December,2005.
 
[[3]  Alwan, A.R.(2006) Past and Presence status of the Aquatic plants of the marshlands of Iraq. Marsh Bulletin.2:140-153.
 
[[4]  Hussain, N.A. and Ali,T.S.(2006) Tropical nature and feeding relationship among Al-Hammar marsh fishes, southern Iraq. Marsh Bulletin. 1(1):9-18.
 
[[5]  AOAC (1984) Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, USA.1094P.
 
Show More References
[6]  APHA (1979) Americana Public Health Association. Standard Method Examination of Water and West water, 20th edition ,Washington, DC.
 
[7]  Parson, T.S. Mita Y. and Lall,G.M.(1984) .Manual of chemical and biological methods for sea water analysis. Pergamon press, oxford.
 
[8]  Al-Aarajy, M.J. (1988).Ecological study for phytoplankton and nutrients in Hor Al-Hammar. Iraq.MSC. The sis. College of science .University of Basrah, 113P.
 
[9]  Hassen, F.M. (1988) Ecological and physiological study and phytoplankton quality in Al-Hammar marsh, Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis. College of Science, University of Basrah, 136P.
 
[10]  Salman, J.M.(2006) Environmental study of pollution on Euphrates River between Al-Hindiya Dam and Al-Kufa city-Iraq. Ph.D Thesis, Univ. of Babylon.
 
[11]  Watzel, R.G.(2001) Limnology, Lake and River ecosystem. 3th edition. Academic press, Elsevier Science, London.
 
[12]  AL-Saad, H.T., Al-Hello, M.A., Kareem, S. and DouAbul. A.A.Z. (2008) Water quality of Iraqi Southern marshes. Marina Mesopotamica,23(1).
 
[13]  Wetzel, R.G. and Likens, G.E.(2000) Limnological analysis, 3Ed. Springer.
 
[14]  Al-Imarah, F.J.M., Al-Shawi, I.J.M., Al-Mahmood, H.K., and Hmood, A.Y. (2006) Study of some physical and chemical characterizations of water from southern Iraqi marshlands after rehabilitation/2003. Marsh Bullt. 1(1):82-91.
 
[15]  Saeed, S.H.(1997) The study on water quality of Al-Kasa Chai river in Kirkuk city. MS.c thesis. Tikrit Univ.
 
[16]  Al-Fatlawi, H.J.J. (2005) Ecological study Euphrates River between Al-Hindiya Dam and Al-Kefel city-Iraq. MS.c Thesis, Univ. of Babylon.
 
[17]  Toma, J.J.(2002) Limnological study of Dokan lake, Kurdistan region, Iraq. MS.c thesis, Univ. of Salahaddin-Arbil.
 
[18]  Al-Mousawi, A.H.A., Al-Saadi, H.A. and Hassan, F.M.(1994) Spatial and seasonal variations of phytoplankton population and related environments in Al-Hammar marsh. Iraqi Basrah G.Sci, B.,12(1):9-20.
 
[19]  Al-Lami, A.A., Rathi, A.G., Al-Dylymi, A.A., Rasheed, R.S. and Hassan, A.A. (2002). The study of some ecological factors of four lotic aquatic system with different salinity, Middle of Iraq-Tikrit Journal of Pure Science .5:14-25.
 
[20]  Al-Saadi, H.A.,Sulaiman, N.A. and Ismail, A.M. (2001) On some limnological characters of three lotic water system ,middle of Iraq. Ibin-Haitham, J.of Applied and pure Science,2:5-12.
 
[21]  Witton, B.A. (1975) River ecology. Black Well Scientific Publication, Oxford, London.
 
[22]  Weiner, E.R.(2000) Application of Environmental chemistry. Lewis Publisher, London, New York.
 
[23]  Smith, R. (2004) Current methods in aquatic science. University of Waterloo, Canada.
 
[24]  Al-Shawi, I.J.(2006) Comparative study on some physic-chemical characteristic for northern Al-Hammar marsh water before destroyed and after rehabilitation 204, Marsh Bulletin, 127-133.
 
Show Less References

Article

Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index

1Department of Chemistry, DAV Post Graduate College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

2Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Center, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

3Uttarakhand Council of Science and Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 34-38
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shweta Tyagi, Bhavtosh Sharma, Prashant Singh, Rajendra Dobhal. Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):34-38. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: Bhavtosh Sharma, Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Center, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Email: bhavtoshchem@gmail.com

Abstract

Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. However, WQI depicts the composite influence of different water quality parameters and communicates water quality information to the public and legislative decision makers. In spite of absence of a globally accepted composite index of water quality, some countries have used and are using aggregated water quality data in the development of water quality indices. Attempts have been made to review the WQI criteria for the appropriateness of drinking water sources. Besides, the present article also highlights and draws attention towards the development of a new and globally accepted “Water Quality Index” in a simplified format, which may be used at large and could represent the reliable picture of water quality.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Fourth Edition, World Health Organization ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1. 2012.
 
[[2]  Bureau of Indian Standards, Specification for drinking water. IS: 10500, New Delhi, India, 2012.
 
[[3]  United State EPA 816-F-09-004, May 2009, http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/upload/mcl-2.pdf (Accessed 12 July 2013).
 
[[4]  Guide Manual: Water and Waste Water, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/Latest/Latest_67_guidemanualw&wwanalysis.pdf (Accessed 12 July 2013).
 
[[5]  Bharti, N. and Katyal, D, “Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment”, Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2(1). 154-173. 2011.
 
Show More References
[6]  Akoteyon, I.S., Omotayo, A.O., Soladoye, O. and Olaoye, H.O., “Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria”, Europ. J. Scientific Res, 54(2). 263-271. 2011.
 
[7]  Babaei Semiromi, F., Hassani, A.H., Torabian, A., Karbassi, A.R. and Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F., “Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon river of Iran”, African J. Biotech.., 10(50). 10125-10133. 2011.
 
[8]  Karbassi, A. R., Mir Mohammad Hosseini, F., Baghvand, A. and Nazariha, M., “Development of water quality index (WQI) for Gorganrood River”, Int. J. Environ. Res., 5(4). 1041-1046. Autumn 2011.
 
[9]  Das, K.K., Panigrahi, T., Panda, R.B., “Evaluation of water quality index (WQI) of drinking water of Balasore district, Odisha, India”, Discovery life, 1(3). 48-52. 2012.
 
[10]  Jena, V., Dixit, S., Gupta, S., “Assessment of water quality index of industrial area surface water samples”, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 5(1). 278-283. 2013.
 
[11]  Saberi Nasr, A., Rezaei, M. and Dashti Barmaki M., “Groundwater contamination analysis using Fuzzy Water Quality index (FWQI): Yazd province, Iran”, J Geope 3., (1). 47-55. 2013.
 
[12]  Abdulwahid, S.J., “Water quality index of delizhiyan springs and shawrawa river within soran district, erbil, kurdistan region of iraq”, J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 3(1). 40-48. 2013.
 
[13]  Srinivas, J., Purushotham, A.V. and Murali Krishna, K.V.S.G., “Determination of water quality index in industrial areas of Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India”, Int. Res. J Env. Sci., 2(5). 37-45. 2013.
 
[14]  Radmanesh, F., Zarei, H. and Salari, S., “Water Quality Index and Suitability of Water of Gotvand Basin at District Khuzestan, Iran”, Int. J. Agron. Plant Prod., 4(4). 707-713. 2013.
 
[15]  Bhadja, P. and Vaghela, A.K. “Assessment of physico-chemicalparameters and water quality index of reservoir water”, Int. J. Plant Animal and Environ. Sci., 3(3). 89-95. 2013.
 
[16]  Khwakaram, A.I., Majid, S.N. and Hama N.Y., “Determination of water quality index (wqi) for qalyasan stream in sulaimani city/ kurdistan region of Iraq”, Int. J. Plant Animal and Environ. Sci., 2(4). 148-157. 2012.
 
[17]  Mazhar, S. M., Khan, N. and Kumar, A.R. “Geogenic assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tiruchengode taluk, Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India, Chem Sci Trans., 2(3). 1021-1027. 2013.
 
[18]  Ansari, K. and Hemke, N. M., “Water quality index for assessment of water samples of different zones in Chandrapur city”, Int. J. Engineer. Res. Appli., 3(3). 233-237. 2013.
 
[19]  Sirajudeen, J., Manikandan, S.A. and Manivel, V., “Water quality index of ground water around Ampikapuram area near Uyyakondan channel Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India”, Archiv. Appl. Sci. Res., 5 (3). 21-26. 2013.
 
[20]  Patil, V.T. and Patil, P.R., “Groundwater quality status using water quality index in Amalner town, Maharashtra”, J. Chem. Pharmaceut. Res., 5(5). 67-71. 2013.
 
[21]  Sujaul, I.M., Hossain M.A., Nasly, M.A. and Sobahan, M.A., “Effect of industrial pollution on the spatial variation of surface water quality”, Ameri. J. Environ. Sci., 9 (2). 120-129. 2013.
 
[22]  Sharifinia, M., Ramezanpour, Z., Imanpour, J., Mahmoudifard A. and Rahmani, T., “Water quality assessment of the Zarivar Lake using physico-chemical parameters and NSF- WQI indicator, Kurdistan Province-Iran”, Int. J. Adv. Bio. Biomed. Res., 1(3). 302-312. 2013.
 
[23]  Srivastava, G. and Kumar, P., “Water quality index with missing parameters”, Int. J. Res. Engineer. Technol., 2(4). 609-614. 2013.
 
[24]  Jagadeeswari, P.B. and Ramesh, K., “Water quality index for assessment of water quality in south Chennai coastal aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India”, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 4(4). 1582-1588. 2012.
 
[25]  Chowdhury R.M., Muntasir S.Y. and Hossain M.M., “Study on ground water quality and its suitability or drinking purpose in Alathur block -Perambalur district”, Archiv. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(3). 1332-1338. 2012.
 
[26]  Nasirian. M., “A new water quality index for environmental contamination contributed by mineral processing: A case study of Amang (tin tailing) processing activity”, J. Appli. Sci., 7(20). 2977-2987. 2007.
 
[27]  Horton, R.K., “An index number system for rating water quality”, J. Water Pollu. Cont. Fed., 37(3). 300-305. 1965.
 
[28]  Brown, R.M., McClelland, N.I., Deininger, R.A. and Tozer, R.G., “Water quality index-do we dare?”, Water Sewage Works, 117(10). 339-343. 1970.
 
[29]  Bhargava, D.S, Saxena, B.S. and Dewakar, R.W., “A study of geo-pollutants in the Godavary river basin in India”, Asian Environ., 12. 36-59. 1998.
 
[30]  Dwivedi, S., Tiwari, I.C. and Bhargava, D.S., “Water quality of the river Ganga at Varanasi”, Institute of Engineers, Kolkota, 78, 1-4. 1997.
 
[31]  Fernandez, N., Ramirez, A. and Solano, F., “Physico-chemical water quality indices - a comparative review”, Revista Bistua. ISSN 0120-4211. Available at: http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/src/inicio/ArtPdfRed.jsp?iCve=90320103 Accessed: 18 September, 2012.
 
[32]  Dunnette, D.A., “A geographically variable water quality index used in Oregon”, J. Water Pollu. Cont. Fed., 51(1). 53-61. 1979.
 
[33]  Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. and Sharma, T., “Canadian water quality index to monitor the changes in water quality in the Mackenzie river–Great Bear”. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, (Oct. 21-23), Whistler, B.C., Canada. 2002.
 
[34]  Chaturvedi, M.K. and Bassin, J.K., “Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India”, Environ. Monit. Assess., 163. 449-453. 2010.
 
[35]  Bordalo, A.A., Nilsumranchit, W. and Chalermwat, K., “Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong river (Eastern Thailand)”, Water Res., 35(15). 3635-3642. 2001.
 
[36]  Kumar, D. and Alappat, B., “NSF-Water Quality Index: Does It Represent the Experts’ Opinion?”, Pract. Period. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste Manage., 13(1). 75-79. 2009.
 
[37]  CCME (2001). Canadian environmental quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, CCME water quality index: technical report, 1.0.
 
[38]  Khan, A.A., Paterson, R. and Khan, H., “Modification and Application of the CCME WQI for the Communication of Drinking Water Quality Data in Newfoundland and Labrador”, Proceedings of the 38th Central Symposium on Water Quality Research, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Burlington, Canada. 2003.
 
[39]  Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. and Sharma, T., “Application of CCME water quality index to monitor water quality: a case of the Mackenzie river basin, Canada”. Environ. Monit. Assess., 113. 411-429. 2006.
 
[40]  Khan, A.A., Tobin, A., Paterson, R., Khan, H. and Warren, R., “Application of CCME procedures for deriving site-specific water quality guidelines for the CCME water quality index”, Wat. Qual. Res. J. Canada.., 40(4). 448-456. 2005.
 
[41]  Kankal, N.C., Indurkar, M.M., Gudadhe, S.K. and Wate, S.R., “Water quality index of surface water bodies of Gujarat, India”, Asian J. Exp. Sci., 26(1). 39-48. 2012.
 
[42]  Dinius, S.H., “Design of an index of water quality”, Water Resou. Bull., 23(5). 833-843. 1987.
 
[43]  Cude, C.G., “Oregon water quality index: a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness”, J. American Water Resou. Assoc., 37(1). 125-137. 2001.
 
[44]  Chauhan, A. and Singh, S., “Evaluation of Ganga water for drinking purpose by water quality index at Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India”, Report Opinion, 2(9). 53-61. 2010.
 
[45]  Chowdhury, R.M., Muntasir, S.Y. and Hossain, M.M., “Water quality index of water bodies along Faridpur-Barisal road in Bangladesh”, Glob. Eng. Tech. Rev., 2(3). 1-8. 2012.
 
[46]  Rao, C.S., Rao, B.S., Hariharan, A.V.L.N.S.H. and Bharathi, N.M., “Determination of water quality index of some areas in Guntur district Andhra Pradesh”, Int. J. Appl. Bio. Pharm. Tech., I(1). 79-86. 2010.
 
[47]  Balan, I.N., Shivakumar, M. and Kumar, P.D.M., “An assessment of ground water quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India”, Chronicles Young Scient., 3(2). 146-150. 2012.
 
[48]  rown, R.M, McCleiland, N.J., Deiniger, R.A. and O’Connor, M.F.A. “Water quality index – crossing the physical barrier”, (Jenkis, S.H. ed.) Proceedings in International Conference on water pollution Research Jerusalem 6. 787-797. 1972.
 
[49]  Mnisi, L.N., “Assessment of the state of the water quality of the Lusushwana River, Swaziland, using selected water quality indices”. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare. 2010.
 
[50]  Wills, M. and Irvine, K.N., “Application of the national sanitation foundation water quality index in Cazenovia Creek”, NY, Pilot watershed management project. Mid. States Geograph., 95-104. 1996.
 
[51]  Terrado, M., Barcelo, D., Tauler, R., Borrell, E. and Campos, S.D., “Surface-water-quality indices for the analysis of data generated by automated sampling networks”, Trends Anal. Chem., 29(1). 40-52. 2010.
 
[52]  Abbasi, T. and Abbasi, S.A., “Water quality indices”. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2012.
 
[53]  Hubler, S., Miller, S., Merrick, L., Leferink, R. and Borisenko, A., “High level indicators of Oregon’s forested streams”, Lab. Environ. Assess. Div., Hillsboro, Oregon. 2009.
 
[54]  Yogendra, K. and Puttaiah E.T., “Determination of water quality index and suitability of an urban waterbody in Shimoga Town, Karnataka”, Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp. 342-346. 2008.
 
Show Less References

Article

Hydrogeochemistry and Stable Isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) Assessment of Ikogosi Spring Waters

1Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 25-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abel O. Talabi. Hydrogeochemistry and Stable Isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) Assessment of Ikogosi Spring Waters. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):25-33. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: Abel O. Talabi, Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Email: soar_abel@yahoo.com

Abstract

Ikogosi warm spring is a unique tourist centre where warm and cold spring waters flow together. Consequently, understanding the hydrochemical processes and recharge source are critical to the sustainability and management of the warm spring. Hence, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) and hydrochemical study of Ikogosi spring waters was carried out to conceptualize the recharge source and the extent of water-rock interaction on the hydrochemical evolution of the waters. The study approach involved field sampling and in-situ measurements of physico-chemical parameters followed by laboratory hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses of the spring water samples. The hydrochemical analysis revealed that Ikogosi spring water is alkaline in nature with values ranging between 7.4 and 9.0. The TDS ranges from 14.3 to 66.8 mg/L with mean value of 49.2mg/L while the TH is from 6.3 to 39.0mg/L with mean value of 27.61mg/L. All EC values for the sampled spring waters were below 1000µS/cm indicating fresh water. Ca2+ was the dominant cation with value ranging from 2.2-9.6mg/L while Cl- was the dominant anion with value ranging from 88.6-144.0mg/L. The spring water is low mineralized and hydrochemically potable. Rock-water interactions were the dominant processes controlling the major ion composition of the spring while the dominant water was Ca (Mg)-Cl type. Stable isotopes analysis revealed recharge from recent precipitation. Conclusively, Ikogosi spring waters have low EC and TDS along with low total hardness (TH) values suggesting a low mineralized soft fresh water system recharged from recent precipitation with limited residence time.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Lamoreaux, P.E. and Tanner, J.T, Springs and bottled waters of the World (eds.). Ancient History Source, Occurrence, Quality and Use. New York. Springer-Verlag, 2001.
 
[[2]  Aniah, E.J., Eja, E.I., Out, J.E. and Ushie, M.A, Patronage of ecotourism potential as a strategy for sustainable tourism development in Cross River State, Nigeria. J. Geography and Geology, 2009, 1 (2): 20-27.
 
[[3]  Garba, M.L., Kurowaska, E., Schoeneich, K. and A bdullahi, I, Rafin Rewa Warm Spring, A new geothermal discovery. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2012. Vol.2, No. 9
 
[[4]  Hairul, N.B.I., Ojo, K.A., Kasimu,M.A., Garfar, O.Y., Okoloba, V. and Mohammed, S.A, Ikogosi warm water resorts: What you don’t know?. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2013. Vol.4, No. 9.
 
[[5]  Das, B.K., Kakar, Y.P., Moser, H. and Stichler, W, Deuterium and Oxygen-18 studies in groundwater of the Delhi area, India. J. Hydrol , 1998, 98:133-146.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sklash, M.G, Environmental isotope studies of storm and snowmelt runoff generation. In: M.G. Anderson and T.P. Burt (Eds), Process Studies in Hillslope Hydrology, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K., 1990, pp. 401-435.
 
[7]  Rogers, A.S., Imevbore A.M.A. and Adegoke, O.S, Physical and chemical properties of the Ikogosi warm spring, Western Nigeria. J. Mining Geol., 1969 4: 69-81.
 
[8]  Adegbuyi, O., Ajayi, O.S. and Odeyemi, I.B, Prospects of Hot-Dry-Rock (HDR) geothermal energy resource around the Ikogosi warm spring in Ekiti state, Nigeria. J. Renew. Energy, 1996 4: 58-64.
 
[9]  Oladipo, A.A., Oluyemi, E.A., Tubosun, I.A., Fasisi, M.K. and Ibitoye, F.I, Chemical Examination of Ikogosi Warm Spring in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 2005, 5 (1): 75-79.
 
[10]  Ojo, J.S., Olorunfemi, M.O. and Falebita, D.E, An Appraisal of the Geologic Structure beneath the Ikogosi Warm Spring in South- Western Nigeria Using Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods. Earth Sciences Research Journal. 2011, 15(1):27-34.
 
[11]  Piper, A. M, A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretationof water analyses. Trans. Am.Geophy. Union 1944, 25: 914-928.
 
[12]  Gibbs, R. J, Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science 1970. 17: 1088-1090
 
[13]  Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, NSDWQ. Published by Nigerian Industrial Standard 2007, 554, 1-14.
 
[14]  W orld Health Organization (WHO), “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality”, 2004, Vol.1: Recommendations (3rd edn). WHO, Geneva.
 
[15]  Ammar, Tiri and Abderrahmane, Boudoukha, Hydrochemical Analysis and Assessment of Surface Water Quality in Koudiat Medouar Reservoir, Algeria. Euro Journals Publishing, Inc. ISSN 1450-216X, 2010, Vol.41 No.2, pp.273-285.
 
[16]  Fetter, C. W, Applied Geology. CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1990, New Delhi, India.
 
[17]  McGowan, W, Water processing: residential, commercial, light-industrial, 3rd ed. Lisle, IL, 2000, Water Quality Association.
 
[18]  http://nevada-outback-gems.com/Prospecting_Basics/Rocks_4_prospector_p1.htm.
 
[19]  Aghazadeh , N and Mogaddam, A. A, Assessment of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Uses in the Oshnavieh Area, Northwest of Iran, Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 30-40.
 
[20]  Hem, J. D, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. US Geological Survey Water-supply Paper, 1985, 2254, 3rd ed., p263.
 
[21]  Back, W. and Hanshaw, B (eds), Chemical geohydrology advances in hydroscience; (Academic Press), 1965, pp. 49-109.
 
[22]  Schoeller, H, Geochemistry of groundwater. An international guide for research and practice. UNESCO, 1967, chap 15, pp 1-18.
 
[23]  McFarlane, M.J., Chilton, P.J and Lewis, M.A,, Geomorphological controls on borehole yields: a statistical study in an area of basement rocks in central Malawi. In: Wright, E.P. and Burgess, W.G. (eds.). Hydrogeology of crystalline Basement Aquifers in Africa. Geological Society Special Publication, 1992, No 66. Geological Society, London.
 
[24]  Nkotagu, H, Application of environmental isotopes to groundwater recharge studies in a semi – arid fractured crystalline basement area of Dodoma, Tanzania. Journal of African Earth Science, 1996, 22(4): 443-457.
 
[25]  Praamsma, T., Novakowski, K., Kyser, K. and Hall, K, Using stable isotopes and hydraulic head data to investigate groundwater recharge and discharge in a fractured rock aquifer. Journal of Hydrology, 2009, 366: 35-45.
 
[26]  Sukhija, B.S., Reddy, D.V., Nagabhushanam P., Bhattacharya, S.K., Jani, R.A. and Kumar, D, Characterisation of recharge processes and groundwater flow mechanisms in weathered-fractured granites of Hyderabad (India) using isotopes. Hydrogeol J, 2006, 14 (5):663-674
 
[27]  Horst, A., Mahlknecht, J., merkel, B.J., Aravena, R. and Ramos-Arroyo, Y.R, Evaluation of the recharge processes and impacts of irrigation on groundwater using CFCs and radiogenic isotopes in the Silao_Romita basin, Mexico. Hydrgeol. J., 2008, 16(8): 1601-1614.
 
[28]  Craig, H, Isotopic Variation in Meteoric Water, Science, 1961, Vol. 133, No. 3465, 1961, pp 1702-1703.
 
[29]  Rozanski, K., Araguás- Araguás, L. and Gonfitiantini, R, Isotopic patterns in modern global precipiotation. American Geophysical Union Monograph, 1993, 78, AGU, Washington, DC.
 
[30]  Murherjee, A,. Fryar, A. E.and Rowe, H. D, Regional-scale stable isotopic signatures of recharge and deep groundwater in the arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India. Journal of Hydrology. 2007, Vol.334, pp.151-161.
 
[31]  Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources Hannover, Germany. Lake Chad Sustainable Water Management, Lake Chad Commission, 2010. Project Activities Report No. 3.
 
Show Less References

Article

Removal of Turbidity, Suspended Solids and Ions of Fe from Aqueous Solution using Okra Powder by Coagulation-Flocculation Process

1Departament of Chemical Engineering, Federal of Sergipe University, São Cristóvão-SE, Brazil

2Departament of Mathmatics, Federal of Sergipe University, São Cristóvão-SE, Brazil


American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 20-24
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Edilson de Jesus, Paulo Victor Cruz, José Adair Pacífico, Antônio Santos Silva. Removal of Turbidity, Suspended Solids and Ions of Fe from Aqueous Solution using Okra Powder by Coagulation-Flocculation Process. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):20-24. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: Edilson de Jesus, Departament of Chemical Engineering, Federal of Sergipe University, São Cristóvão-SE, Brazil. Email: edilsonjs@ufs.br

Abstract

This work evaluates the efficiency of okra powder in removing turbidity, suspended solids and ions of Fe from synthetic raw water through coagulation-flocculation process. The raw water samples with initial turbidity of 100 NTU were prepared using natural red clay (-32+100 mesh particle size). The jar tests were carried out by varying the pH and the dose of okra powder. The initial pH 8.0 of synthetic raw water and 30 mgL-1 okra powder caused 80.92% reduction of Fe ions and 99% turbidity removal after 10 minutes of sedimentation. The efficiency of Fe the removal was evaluated by characterization EDX sludge formed after sedimentation with and without okra powder and the jar tests were carried out using a solution of ferric sulfate as the coagulating agent.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Libânio M. Fundamentos de qualidade e tratamento de água. Átomo, Campinas, 2005.
 
[[2]  Akhtar M., Iqbal S., Bhanger M.I., Zia-Ul-Haq M., Moazzam M. “Sorption of organophosphorous pesticides onto chickpea husk from aqueous solutions”. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 69:63–70, 2009.
 
[[3]  Okuda T., Baes A.U., Nishijima W., Okada M. “Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed”. Water Res, 33(15): 3373-3378, 1999.
 
[[4]  Ndabigengesere A., Narasiah K.S. “Quality of water treated by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds”. Water Res, 32:781-91, 1998.
 
[[5]  Zeng D., Wu J.; Kennedy J.F. “Application of a chitosan flocculant to water treatment”. Carbohydr Polym, 71:135-9, 2008.
 
Show More References
[6]  Santos Filho J.D., Santa Rita E.S. Gerenciamento do resíduo gerado na clarificação de água da RLAM [monograph on the internet]. Universidade Federal da Bahia (Escola Politécnica): Pós-Graduação em Gerenciamento e Tecnologia Ambientais na Indústria; 2008 [cited 2012 set 22]: Available from: http://www.teclim.ufba.br/site/material_online/monografias/mono_santosfilho_e_rita.pdf.
 
[7]  Gupta V.K., Ali I. “Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste”. J Colloid Interface Sci, 271(2):321-8, 2004.
 
[8]  Gupta V.K., Gupta M., Sharma S. “Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminium industry waste”, Water Res, 35:1125-34, 2001.
 
[9]  Gupta V.K., Rastogi A. “Sorption and desorption studies of chromium (VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass”. J Hazard Mater, 154: 347-54, 2008.
 
[10]  Gupta V.K., Rastogi A. “Biosorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions by non-living algal biomass Oedogonium sp. and Nostoc sp.—a comparative study”, Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 64:170-8, 2008.
 
[11]  Gupta V.K., Rastogi A. “Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium (II) biosorption by nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase”, J. Hazard Mater, 153:759-66, 208.
 
[12]  Gupta V.K., Rastogi A. “Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: kinetics and equilibrium studies”, J Hazard Mater, 152:407-14, 2008.
 
[13]  Singh A.K., Gupta V.K., Gupta B. “Chromium (III) selective membrane sensors based on Schiff bases as chelating ionophores”. Anal Chim Acta, 585:171-8, 2007.
 
[14]  Pehlivan E., Kahraman H.T. Hexavalent chromium removal by Osage Orange, Food Chem, 133:1478-84, 2012.
 
[15]  Agarwal M., Srinivasan R., Mishira A. “Study on flocculation efficiency of okra gum in sewage waste water”, Macromol Mater and Eng, 286:560-3, 2001.
 
[16]  Calixto C.D. Óleo de quiabo como fonte alternativa para produção de biodiesel e avaliação de antioxidantes naturais em biodiesel etílico de soja [monograph on the internet]. Universidade Federal da Paraíba: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; 2011 [cited 2012 oct 22]: Available from: http://www.quimica.ufpb.br/posgrad/dissertacoes/Dissertacao_Clediana_Dantas_Calixto.pdf.
 
[17]  FILGUEIRA, F. A. R. Novo Manual de Olericultura: agrotecnologia moderna na produção e comercialização de hortaliças – Viçosa: UFV, cap.24, p.337-382, 2000.
 
[18]  COSTA, M.C.B; OLIVEIRA, G.D.; HAAG, H.P. Nutrição mineral de hortaliças – Efeito da omissão dos macronutrientes e do boro, no desenvolvimento e na composição química de hortaliças. In: HAAG, H. P.; MINAMI, K.; Nutrição mineral em hortaliças. Campinas: Fundação Cargill, 1981, cap. 6, p.257-276.
 
[19]  Pedrosa J.F., Mizubuti A., Casali V.W.D., Campos J.P. “Caracterização Morfológica de Introduções de Quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)”. Horticultura Brasileira, 1:14-23, 1983.
 
[20]  MOTA, W.F.; FINGER, F.L.; SILVA, D.J.H.; CORRÊA, P.C.; FIRME, L.P.; NEVES, L.L.M. “Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo”. Horticultura Brasileira, Brasília, v.23, n.3, 722-725, 2005.
 
[21]  Arapitsas P. “Identification and Quantification of Polyphenolic Compounds from Okra Seeds and Skins”. Food Chem, 110:1041-45, 2008.
 
[22]  Agarwal M., Rajani S., Mishra A., Rai J. “Utilization of okra gum for treatment of tannery effluent”. International Journal of Polymeric Materials, 52:1049-57, 2003.
 
[23]  Calado V., Montgomery D.C. Planejamento de Experimentos Usando o Statistica. E-papers, Rio de Janeiro, 2010.
 
[24]  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21rd ed., Washington: American Public Heath Association, 2005.
 
[25]  Shukla D., Vankar, S. “Efficient biosorption of chromium (VI) ion by dry Araucaria leaves”. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 19(6):2321-28, 2012.
 
[26]  Santhana A., Kumar K., Kalidhasan S., Rajesh V., Rajesh N. “Application of Cellulose-Clay Composite Biosorbent toward the Effective Adsorption and Removal of Chromium from Industrial Wastewater”. Ind Eng Chem Res, 51:58-69, 2012.
 
[27]  Marshall W.E, Champagne E.T. “Agricultural byproducts as adsorbents for metal ions in laboratory prepared solutions and in manufacturing wastewater”. J Environ Sci Health A, 30(2): 241-61, 1995.
 
[28]  Altun T., Pehlivan E. “Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by modifield walnud shells”. Food Chem, 132:693-700, 2012.
 
[29]  Bernardo L. Métodos e Técnicas de Tratamento de Água. ABES, Rio de Janeiro, 1993.
 
[30]  Pehlivan E., Cetin S., Yanik B.H. “Equilibrium studies for the sorption of zinc and copper from aqueous solutions using sugar beet pulp and fly ash”. Journal Hazar Mater, 135(1):193-9, 2006.
 
Show Less References
comments powered by Disqus