American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(4), 56-65
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-1
Open AccessArticle

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Surface Water in the Central Part of Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria

A. O Talabi1, , O. L. Afolagboye1, M. N. Tijani2, J. A. Aladejana2 and A. K. Ogundana3

1Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Geology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti

Pub. Date: November 27, 2013

Cite this paper:
A. O Talabi, O. L. Afolagboye, M. N. Tijani, J. A. Aladejana and A. K. Ogundana. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Surface Water in the Central Part of Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(4):56-65. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-4-1

Abstract

Surface water is an important water resource for drinking and irrigation purposes in the central part of Ekiti-State. The water bodies are used with little attention to their quality status in addition to increased threat of anthropogenic contamination in view of rapid growth in population. The objectives of this study were to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water, its hydrochemical controls and suitability for drinking and irrigation. Forty surface water samples were investigated. Field measurements of physical parameters were preceded by chemical analyses of the samples for major ions concentrations and bacteriological content. The surface water has pH ranging from 8.3 – 9.6 implying that the water was barely alkaline. Electrical conductivity [<205 µS/cm] and total dissolved solids [<154 mg/l] were low suggesting low-mineralised freshwater. The relative abundance of major ions [mg/L] was Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ for cations and Cl- >SO42-> HCO3->NO3- for anions. Major ion concentrations were low and within the WHO guidelines for drinking water indicating chemical suitability of surface water. The water samples tested positive to total bacterial count and E – coli with median values of 31.50 and 8.00 (cfu/100ml) respectively. Main water types and proportions were [70 %] mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl-, [20%] Na+-Cl- and [10%] Ca2+-Cl-. Predominant processes influencing water chemistry were incongruent dissolution/weathering of silicate minerals and cation-exchange of Na+ in rocks for Ca2+ in water. The low major ion concentrations indicated low water-rock interactions and short residence time. Irrigation quality indices [Sodium absorption ratio, salinity hazard, Kelly ratio and permeability index] revealed that the analysed water was suitable for irrigation.

Keywords:
freshwater total bacterial count E – coli water chemistry cation-exchange

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 8

References:

[1]  Raymond, G. S., Dean S. J. and Thomas A. C, Hydrochemical Methods and Relationships for Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments Biogeochemistry of Small Catchments: A Tool for Environmental Research Edited by B. Moldan and J.Cerny @ 1994 Scope Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
 
[2]  Offiong, O. E. and Edet, A. E, Surface water quality evaluation in Odukpani, Calabar Flank, southeastern Nigeria Environ. Geol., 1998b, 36 (3/4): 343-348.
 
[3]  Udosen, E. D. and Benson, N. U, Spatio-temporal distribution of heavy metals sediments and surface water in Stubbs Creek, Nigeria. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 2006, 1(3): 292-300.
 
[4]  Wakawa, R. J., Uzairu, A., Kagbu, J. A. and Balarabe, M. L, Impact assessment of effluent discharge on physico-chemical parameters and some heavy metal concentrations in surface water of River Challawa Kano, Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2008, 2(9): 100-106.
 
[5]  Abdalla, F. A. and Scheytt, T, Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured carbonate aquifer in the Helwan area, Egypt. J. of Earth syst. Sci. 2012, 121(1): 109-124.
 
[6]  Wirmvem, M. J., Ohba, T., Fantong, W. Y., Ayonghe, S. N., Suila, J. Y., Asaah, A. N. E., Tanyileke, G. and Hell, J. V, Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and surface water in the Ndop plain, North West Cameroon. African Journal of Environmental Technology, 2013, 7 (6): 518-530.
 
[7]  Iqbal, M. A. and Gupta, S. G, Studies on Heavy Metal Ion Pollution of Ground Water Sources as an Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Dumping. Afr. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 2009, 1(5-6): 117-122.
 
[8]  Talabi, A. O. and Tijani, M. N, Assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the basement complex terrain of southwestern Nigeria. GQ10: Groundwater Quality Management in a Rapidly Changing World (Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference held in Zurich, Switzerland, 13-18 June (2010). IAHS Publ , 2011, 342: 503-506.
 
[9]  Schoeller, H, 1965 Qualitative evaluation of groundwa-ter resources. In Methods and techniques of ground-water investigations and development.UNESCO, 1965, 54-83.
 
[10]  Rajmohan, N. and Elango, L, Identification and evolution of hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater environment in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basins, Southern India, Journal of Environmental Geology, 2004, 46: 47-61.
 
[11]  World Health Organization (WHO), Guidelines for drinking water quality criteria, 2 Ed, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2006, 2: 281-308.
 
[12]  Berner, E. K. and Berner, R. A, The global water cycle, Prentice Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs, 1981, NJ; 397.
 
[13]  Stellard, R. F. and Edmond, J. M, Geochemistry of the Amazon 2: The influence of geology and weathering environment on dissolve load. Jour. Geophys. Res., 1983, 88 (14): 967-968.
 
[14]  Sarin, M. M., Krishnawamy, S., Dilli, K., Somayajulu, B.L.K. and Moore, W.S, Major in chemistry of Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: weathering processes and fluxes to the bay of Bengal, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 1989, 53: 997-1009.
 
[15]  Zhang, J., Huang, W. W., Letolle, R. and Jusserand, C, Major element chemistry of Husanghe (Yellow river), Chine-weathering processes and chemical fluxes, Journal hydrology, 1995,168: 173-203.
 
[16]  Gibbs, R. J, Mechanism Controlling World Water Chemistry, Science, 1970, 170: 1088- 1090.
 
[17]  McGowan, W, Water processing: residential, commercial, light-industrial, Water Quality Association.2000, 3rd ed. Lisle, IL.
 
[18]  Agarwal V, Jagetai M, Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. In: proceedings of national conference on dimensions of environmental stress in India. Department of geology, MS University, Baroda, India, 1997, 151-154.
 
[19]  Freeze R. A. and Cherry J. A, Groundwater, Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, 1979, N.J.
 
[20]  Pitkanen P., Kaija J., Blomqvist R., Smellie J.A.T., Frape S.K., Laaksoharju M., Negral, P.H., Casanova, J. and Karhu J, Hydro geochemical interpretation of groundwater at Palmottu, Paper EUR 19118 EN, European Commission, Brussels, 2002, 155-167.
 
[21]  Chadha, D. K, A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural waters and interpretation of chemical data. Hydrogeology Journa,l 1999, (5), 431-439.
 
[22]  Piper, A. M, A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Am. Geoph. Union Trans., 1944, 25, 914-923.
 
[23]  EPA, US Environment Protection Agency, Safe Drinking Water Act Ammendment http:// www. epa. gov/safe water /mcl. Html, 2002.
 
[24]  EPA, US Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. EPA, 2003, 816-F-03-016.
 
[25]  Osuinde, M. I. and Eneuzie, N. R,“Bacteriological analysis of ground water.”Nigeria Journal of Microbiology 1999, 13:47-54.
 
[26]  Haritash, A. K., Kaushik, C. P., Kaushik, A., Kansal, A. and Kumar, Y. A, Suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in some North Indian villages. Environ Monit Assess., 2008, 145: 397-406.
 
[27]  Wilcox, L. V, Classification and Use of Irrigation Waters. US Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. USA, 1955, Cire. 969: 19.
 
[28]  UCCC (University of California Committee of Consultants). Guidelines for Interpretations of water Quality for Irrigation. Technical Bulletin, University of California Committee of Consultants, California, USA, 1974, 20-28.
 
[29]  Matthess, G, The Properties of Ground Water, John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A., 1982, 397.
 
[30]  Subramani, T., Elango, L. and Damodarasamy, S, Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Chithar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Envir. Geol., 2005, 47: 1099-1110.
 
[31]  Raihan, F. and Alam, J. B, Assessment of groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Banglidesh. Iran J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., 2008, 5 (3): 155-156.
 
[32]  US Salinity Laboratory Staff, Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils Handbook No. 60, US Government Printing Office, US Department of Agriculture,Washington DC, 1954, 160.
 
[33]  Richards, L. A, Diagnosis and improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. Agricultural Handbook 60, USDA and IBH Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 1954, 98-99.
 
[34]  Gupta, S. K. and Gupta, I. C, Management of Saline Soil and Water. Oxford and IBH Publication. Co. New Delhi, India, 1987, 399.
 
[35]  Kelly, W. P, Use of Saline Irrigation Water. Soil Sci. 1963, 95(4): 355-391.
 
[36]  Joshi, D.M., Kumar, A. and Agrawal, N, Assessment of the irrigation water quality of River Ganga in Haridwar District India. J. Chem., 2009, 2(2): 285-292.
 
[37]  Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W, Water quality for agriculture FAO irrigation and drain. 1985, Paper No 29(1): 1-109
 
[38]  Vasanthavigar, M., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Rajiv Gantha, R., Vijayaraghavan, K. and Sarma, V.S, Characterization and quality assessment of groundwater with special emphasis on irrigation utility: Tirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Arab. Geosci. J, 2010.
 
[39]  Doneen, I. D, The influence of crop and soil on percolating water. Proc 1961 Biannual Conference on Groundwater Recharge 1961, 156-163.
 
[40]  Nagaraju, A., Suresh, S., Killham, K. and Hudson-Edwards, K, Hydrogeochemistry of Waters of Mangampeta Barite Mining Area, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environment Sciences, 2006, 30: 203-219.
 
[41]  Ravikumar, P., Venkatesharaju, K. and Somashekar, R. K, Major ion chemistry and hydrochemical studies of groundwater of Bangalore South Taluk, India, Environ Monit Assess., 2010, 163(1-4): 643-653.