American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(2), 48-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Water-Rock Interaction Effect on Evolution of Total Hardness in Groundwater in Urban

Seyf-Laye Alfa-Sika Mande1, 2, , Mingzhu Liu1, Ibrahim Tchakala3 and Honghan Chen1

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, P.R. China

2Water Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Lome, BP. 1515, Togo;Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, BP. 404, Togo

3Water Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Lome, BP. 1515, Togo

Pub. Date: April 16, 2018

Cite this paper:
Seyf-Laye Alfa-Sika Mande, Mingzhu Liu, Ibrahim Tchakala and Honghan Chen. Water-Rock Interaction Effect on Evolution of Total Hardness in Groundwater in Urban. American Journal of Water Resources. 2018; 6(2):48-52. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-6-2-1


Groundwater is the most important source of water supply in Beijing city. However, groundwater has undergone intensive total hardness pollution caused by water-rock interaction and by human activities. Analysis of monitoring data of 30 years shows that the high concentration of total hardness is relationship with carbonate mineral dissolution and cation exchange. But speciation calculations of two flow path using the hydrogeochemical modeling code PHREEQC indicated that the annual contribution of carbonate dissolution and cation exchange to concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is less than 1 mg∙L-1, which was far less than that observed. The results illustrated that carbonate mineral dissolution and cation exchange in aquifers play a small role in the contribution of groundwater chemical evolution, and also imply other anthropogenic sources exist indirectly.

water-Rock Interaction hardness groundwater water supply pollution

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