American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(2), 48-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Water-Rock Interaction Effect on Evolution of Total Hardness in Groundwater in Urban

Seyf-Laye Alfa-Sika Mande1, 2, , Mingzhu Liu1, Ibrahim Tchakala3 and Honghan Chen1

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, P.R. China

2Water Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Lome, BP. 1515, Togo;Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, BP. 404, Togo

3Water Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Lome, BP. 1515, Togo

Pub. Date: April 16, 2018

Cite this paper:
Seyf-Laye Alfa-Sika Mande, Mingzhu Liu, Ibrahim Tchakala and Honghan Chen. Water-Rock Interaction Effect on Evolution of Total Hardness in Groundwater in Urban. American Journal of Water Resources. 2018; 6(2):48-52. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-6-2-1

Abstract

Groundwater is the most important source of water supply in Beijing city. However, groundwater has undergone intensive total hardness pollution caused by water-rock interaction and by human activities. Analysis of monitoring data of 30 years shows that the high concentration of total hardness is relationship with carbonate mineral dissolution and cation exchange. But speciation calculations of two flow path using the hydrogeochemical modeling code PHREEQC indicated that the annual contribution of carbonate dissolution and cation exchange to concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is less than 1 mg∙L-1, which was far less than that observed. The results illustrated that carbonate mineral dissolution and cation exchange in aquifers play a small role in the contribution of groundwater chemical evolution, and also imply other anthropogenic sources exist indirectly.

Keywords:
water-Rock Interaction hardness groundwater water supply pollution

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Wang Dongsheng., Shen Zhaoli., Zhong Zuoxin., Affects of nitrogen transformation of hardness increment of groundwater, Geosciences 1998, 12, 431-436.
 
[2]  CHENG Donghui., CHEN Honghan.. A study of indicators of anthropogenic influence and water rock interaction in groundwater system in the urban region of Beijin, Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology 2007, 5, 37-42.
 
[3]  Plummer LN., Prestemon EC., Parkhurst DL.An interactive code (NETPATH) for modeling net geochemical reactions along a flow path, version 2.0. USGS Water-Resources Investigation Report, 1994, 94-4169.
 
[4]  D. L. Parkhust., C. Appelo.,. Use’s guide to PHREEQC (VERSION 2)-a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. USGS, Water Resource Investigations Report, 1999, 312-332.
 
[5]  Lopez-Chicano M., Ouamama M., Vallejos A., Pulido-Bosch.,. Factors which determine the hydrogeochemical behavior of karstic springs: a case study from the Betic Cordilleras, Spain. Applied Geochemistry 2001, 16, 1179-1192.
 
[6]  Larsen F., Owen R., Dahlin T., Mangeya P., Barmen G., A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambezi basin, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 2002, 7,765-772.
 
[7]  Guler C., Thyne GD., Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and groundwater chemistry in Indian Wells Owens-Valley area, southeastern California, USA. Hydrology 2004, 285, 177-198.
 
[8]  Guo YH., Wang J., Lu CH., Liu SF., Zhong ZH. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and water-rock: modeling of the Yemaquan preselected area for China’s high level radioactive waste repository. Earth Science Frontier 2005, 12,117-123.
 
[9]  N. Subba Rao, Geochemistry of groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology 2002, 41, 552-562.
 
[10]  R Stephen Fisher.,William F Mullican. Hydrochemical evolution of sodium-sulfate and sodium-chloride groundwater beneath the northern chihuahuan desert, tran-pecos, Texas, USA. Hydrogeology Journal 1997, 5, 4-16.
 
[11]  E. Lakshmanan., R. Kannan., M. Senthil Kumar. Major ion chemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes of ground water in a part of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Geosciences 2003, 10, 157-166.
 
[12]  N. Rajmohan., L. Elango. Identification and evolution of hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar river basin, southern Indian. Environmental Geology 2004, 46, 47-61.
 
[13]  N. Abu-Jaber., M. Ismail. Hydrogeochemical modeling of the shallow groundwater in the northern Jordan valley. Environmental Geology 2003, 44, 391-399.
 
[14]  Susan X Meng., J Barry Maynard. Use of statistical analysis to formulate conceptual models of geochemical behavior: water chemical data from the Botucatu aquifer in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Journal of Hydrology 2001, 250, 78-97.
 
[15]  Zhou Xun., Yao Jinmei., Zhang Hua., Li Rui., Xu Fang. Modeling of water-rock interactions in an aquitard of sandy clay in the coastal area near Beihai, China. Environmental Geology 2008, 56, 183-188.
 
[16]  R. Umar., A. Absar. Chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of the Gambhir river basin, Bharatpur district, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Geology 2003, 44, 535-544.