American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(1), 25-38
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-4
Open AccessReview Article

The River Water Pollution in India & Abroad-A Critical Review to Study the Relationship among Different Physico-chemical Parameters

Pratap Kumar Panda1, Rahas Bihari Panda2 and Prasant Kumar Dash3,

1Department of Chemistry, A.B College, Basudevpur, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

2Department of Chemistry, VSSUT, Burla, Odisha, India

3Department Chemistry, Bhadrak Autonomous College, Bhadrak, Odisha, India

Pub. Date: April 12, 2018

Cite this paper:
Pratap Kumar Panda, Rahas Bihari Panda and Prasant Kumar Dash. The River Water Pollution in India & Abroad-A Critical Review to Study the Relationship among Different Physico-chemical Parameters. American Journal of Water Resources. 2018; 6(1):25-38. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-4

Abstract

Water is the elixir of life as there is no life without water and the rivers are the life line of our economy and culture. The river water pollution in India and abroad is a gigantic problem as it has affected not only of human and animal health but also the economy of the society as a whole. This work reviews a large number of research papers published by different researchers on river water pollution in India and abroad by critically analyzing and interpreting data on the different physico-chemical parameters and finds that the river water in India and abroad is highly polluted in respect of physically, chemically and bacteriologically with different hazardous pollutants including both chemical and microbial, coming from various sources such as industries, mines, agriculture, urban and domestic. Besides, this work finds and outlines the interrelationship among different physico-chemical parameters after careful analysis and interpretation of data and discussions published in different research papers. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and the pH are inversely related with temperature and turbidity and it is directly related with photosynthesis by autotrops. Further, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and free carbon dioxide are directly related with temperature. This review work gives opinions and suggestions to explain the experimental results by applying the standard concepts and outlines a brief guide line for the assessment of water pollution of river water.

Keywords:
river water pollution physico-chemical parameters bacteriological parameters relationship among different parameters

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Singh. V.P., J. of Hydrologic Engg., 13 (3), 118-123 (2008).
 
[2]  O. Flaherty W.D., The Rig Veda, An Anthology, Penguin Books Limited, London (2000).
 
[3]  Water aid, Drinking Water Quality in Rural India: Issues and Approaches, http:www, water aid, org/documents/plug-in documents/drinking water. pdf, Assessed on 05.04.2010.
 
[4]  Monoj, K. and Padhy, P.K., International Research Journal of Environment of Sciences, 2(1), 79-87 (2013).
 
[5]  Adeyeye, EI, Determination of heavy metals in Zllisha Africana, associated water, soil sediments from same fish ponds, Int. J of Env. Study, 45, 231-240 (1994).
 
[6]  Adefemi, S.O & Awokunmi, E.E. "determination of physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in water samples from Itaogbolu area of Ondo State, Nigeria, Afrian J. of Env. Sci. & Tech., 4(3), 145-148 (2010).
 
[7]  The Times of India, Mixed Traffic in Recycle Path, Bennett colemn and company limited, Ahmadabad (2014).
 
[8]  Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Performance Audit of Water Pollution in India, CAG Report No. 21. of 2011-12, New Delhi (2012).
 
[9]  Kudesia, V.P, "Water Pollution" Pragati Prakashana, Meerut, India (1980).
 
[10]  Pardeshi, D.S. and Baidya, S. : Physico-chemical assessment of Waldhuni River Ulahasnagar, Thane, India- A case Study, Int. J of Current Research & Academic Review, 3(4), 234-248 (2015).
 
[11]  World Health Organization, Geneva, Washington, D.C. (2012).
 
[12]  Reporter, S; A special report on India: cracking, growing, infrastructure is India's biggest handicap" the Economist, December 11, (2008).
 
[13]  Agrawal, A, "A decade of clean water" New Scientist, 88-1226 (1980).
 
[14]  "The State of India's Environment" the Citizen Report. The Centre for Science and Environment Publ., P-4 (1982).
 
[15]  Bhaskar, M. and Dixit, A.K. ; water quality appraisal of Hasdep river at Korba in Chhatishgada, India; Int. J. Sci. Res. (IJSR) (2013).
 
[16]  WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (Vol.2), Health Criteria and other supporting informations, 2nd edition, World Health Organisation, Geneva, 231-233 (2004).
 
[17]  Masood, K.M. : Assessment of water quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria using selected physicochemical parameters, Turkish J. of Fisheries & Aquatic Science, 8, 309-319 (2008).
 
[18]  Ndubi, D., Oyaro, N., Giathane, F. & Affulo, A. : Determination of physico-chemical properties of sources of water in Narok, North sub country, Kenya, Int. J. Env. Sciences, 4(1). 47-51 (2015).
 
[19]  Ishaq, F. & Khan, A, : Heavy metal analysis of river Jamuna & their relation with some physicochemical parameters, Global J. of Environmental Research, 7(2), 34-39. (2013).
 
[20]  Weber ¨C Scannell, P.K. and Duffy. L.K., Effects of total dissolved solids on aquatic organism, American J. of Env. Sciences, 3(1), 1-6 (2007). 25.
 
[21]  Banam, B., Ling, E.J., Wright, B and Haering. K., Virginia House hold Water Quality Program. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water, Publication, 442-666. Communication & Marketing, College and Agriculture and life Sciences, Birginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA (2011).
 
[22]  BIS IS-10500, Indian Standard for Drinking Water, Bureau of Indian Standards (IS-10500), New Delhi (2012).
 
[23]  World Helth Organisation, Total Dissolved Soild in Drinking Water: Background Documents for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, WHO / SDE / WSH /, 03.04.16, Geneva (2003a).
 
[24]  Martin, P. and Haniffa, M.A. : Water quality profile in south Indian river Tamiraparani, UEP, 23, 288-292 (2003).
 
[25]  Kalavathy, S., Sharma, T.R. and Kumar, P.S. : Water quality index of river Cauvery in Tiruchirapali, Tamilnadu, ARCH ENVIRON Sci., 55-61 (2005).
 
[26]  Panda, P.K., Panda. R.B. and Dash, P.K. Seasonal Variation of Physico-chemical parameters of river Salandi from Hadagada Dam to Akhan dalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India, IOSR J. of Env. Sci., Toxicology & Food Tech., 10 (11), Ver III, 15-28 (2016).
 
[27]  Panda P.K. Panda. R.B. and Dash. P.K. : The study of Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Parameters of River Salandi and Assessment of Water Quality from Hadagada dam to Akhandalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India, IOSR J. of Environ Sci, Toxicology & Food Tech., 11(4), Ver II, 31-52 (2017).
 
[28]  Wani, Y. H., Jatayana, M., Kumar, S. & Ahamad, S : Assessment of water quality of Dal Lake, Srinagar by using water quality indices, IOSR J. Env. Sci., Toxicology & Food Techn. 10(7), 95-102 (2016).
 
[29]  Saikh, N & Yeragi, S.G. : Seasonal temperature changes and their influence on free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen and PH in Tansa, Thane district., Maharastra J. of Aqua. Biol., 18, 73-75 (2003).
 
[30]  Watzel, R.G;, Limnology ; Lake and River Ecosystems (3rd ed.) San. Diego, C.A. (2001).
 
[31]  Pearson Education, Inc. Lab. Bench Activity. In Measuring Temperature and Metabolic Rate, Retired from http://www phschool. com/ science/ biology-place / lab bench /lab 10/temp. (2011).
 
[32]  Watzel, R.G. & W.B. Limnology, Sunders Co. Philadelphia, London and Toronto, 743 (1975).
 
[33]  Jena, V, Gupta, S and Matic, N., Assessment of Kharoon river water quality at Raipur by physico-chemical parameters analysis: Asian J of Experimental Biological Science, 4 (1), 79-83 (2013).
 
[34]  Cole,G.R.,A Text Book of Limnology,2nd Edition. The E.V.Mosley Co. London (1979).
 
[35]  Chatap, P.B, Telkhade, P.M and Khinchi, P.J; Physico- chemical investigation of river Penganga at Kodsi village, Taluk, Korpana District, Chandrapur, Int. J. of Researches in Biosciences, Agriculture and Technology, 5-7 (2016).
 
[36]  Sing. T. A., Meetel, N.S. and Metel, L.B. Seasonal variation of some physico-chemical characteristics of three rivers in Imphal, Manipur : A comparative evaluation , Current World Environment, 8(1) 93-102 (2013).
 
[37]  Lawson, E.O: Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the mangrove swamps of Lagos Lagoon, Logose, Nigeria, Advances in Biological Research, 5(1), 08-21 (2011).
 
[38]  Begum, A and Harikrishna, M. : Study of quality of water on same streams of Cauvery River, E.J. of Chemistry, 5, 377-384 (2008) .
 
[39]  Gray. N.F.: Water Technology: An introduction for Environmental Scientists & Engineers, 2nd Edition, Elsevier India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi (2005) .
 
[40]  Kaul, V and Handoo, J.K. : Physico-chemical characteristics of Nilang, a high altitude forest lake in Kashmir & its comparison with valley lakes, Proc. Indian National Sci. Academy, 46(4), 528-541 (1980).
 
[41]  Samantray, P., Mishra, B.K., Panda, C.R. & Rout S.P. : Assessment of water quality index in Mahanadi & Atharabanki rivers and Taladanda Canal in Paradeep Area, Odisha, India, J. Human. Ecol., 26 (3), 153-161 (2009).
 
[42]  Mosummath, H.A., Uddin, N. Md, Sarkar, S.C. and Kumar U., Seasonal variation of temperature dependent physico- chemical parameters of coastal river Bhadra, Bangladesh, J. of Tropical Biology and Conservation, 14, 69-81(2017).
 
[43]  Compbell, G and Wildberger, S. : The monitor's handbook, A Reference Guide for Natural water Monitoring, Lamotte company, Chestertown, Maryland, USA, pp-63 (2001).
 
[44]  Satya Prakash's Modern Inorganic Chemistry by R.D. Madan, 2nd Edition, S.Chand & Co., India, 1077-1038 (2006).
 
[45]  Panda, P.K., Panda, R.B. & Dash. P.K. Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Salandi at Hadagada Dam & its Down Stream upto Akhandalmani, Bhadrak, Odisha, India, American J. of Water Resources, 4(2), 44-53 (2016).
 
[46]  Panigrahi, S. and Patra, A.K. : Water quality analysis of river Mahanadi in Cuttack city, Odisha, India, Indian J. of Science, 2(2), 27-33 (2013).
 
[47]  Swietlik. R., Polish J. or Envirnmental Studies, 7(5), 257-266 (1998).
 
[48]  Linos, A, Petralias, A, Christophi, C.A., Christoforidou, E., Kouroutou, P., Stoltidis, M., Veloudaki, A., Tzala., E., Makris, K., C. and Karagas. M,R., Environmental Health, 10:50, 1-8 (2011).
 
[49]  Zayed, A.D. and Terry, N. ; Chromium in environment : Factors affecting biological remediation, plant and soil, 249, 139-156 (2003).
 
[50]  16 WHO, Inorganic chromium (VI) compounds, Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents, 78, WHO, Geneva (2015).
 
[51]  Shan kar, A.K., Cervantes, C., Taverac, L. and Avudainayagam, S; Chromium toxicity in plants, Science Direct Environment International, 31,739-753 (2005).
 
[52]  WHO, World Health Organization, Chromium in drinking Water, Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking water Quality, WHO/SDE/WSH/ 03.04/04. Geneva, (2003g).
 
[53]  Akhionbare, S.M.O.: Factors in the migration of heavy metals in the Otamiri river system, Int. J. of Sci. and nature, 2(4), 856-860 (2011).
 
[54]  Amman, A.A., Michalke, B. & Schramel, P. : Specification of heavy metals in environmental water Ion Chromatography coupled to ICP-MS, Annal. Bional. Chem., 372 (3), 448-452 (2002) .
 
[55]  Hatje, V., Bidone, E.D. & Maddock, J. : Estimation of natural & anthropogenic components of heavy metal fluxes in fresh water Sinos river, Rio Griande do Sulstate, South Brazil, Environ., Tech., 19(5), 483-487 (1998).
 
[56]  Kar, D., Sur. P., Mandal, S.K., Saha, T.& Kole, R.K., Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surfaces water, Int. J. of Environ., Sci. Tech, 5(1), 119-124 (2008).
 
[57]  Reza, R & Sing, G. : Heavy metal contamination & its indexing approach for river water, Int. J. of Environ, Sci. Tech. 7 (4), 785-792 (2010).
 
[58]  Serpil, S : An agricultural pollutants chemical fertilizer, Int. J.of Env. Sci. & Dev. 3(1), (2012).
 
[59]  Bird, G., Brewer, P., Macklin, M., Balteanu, D., Driga, B., Serban, M, & Zaharia, S: The solid state partitioning of contaminant metals and as in river channel sediments of mining affected Tisa drainage basin, North Western Romania & Eastern Hungary, Appl. Geo. Chem., 18(10), 1583-1595 (2003).
 
[60]  Wong, C.S.C., Li.X.D. Zhang, G., Qi; S.H. & Peng, S.Z.: Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in pearl river delta, China, Atmos. Environ. 37(6), 767-776 (2003).
 
[61]  Wu, Y.F., Liu, C.Q., & Tu, C.L. : Atmospheric deposition of heavy metal in TSP of Guiyang, PR China, Bull. Environ. Contamination Toxicol., 80 (5), 465-468 (2008).
 
[62]  Panda, P.K., Panda, R.B. & Dash, P.K. Pollution Load of river Salandi in Boula Nuasahi mining belt, urban area of Bhadrak & its downstream in Odisha (IJIEASR), 4(12), 15-23 (2015).
 
[63]  Ming-HO Y., Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, (2006).
 
[64]  Mantau, H., and Baudo, R., Sources of Cadmium, its Distribution and Turnover in the fresh water Environment, Int. Agency for Research on Cancer Science Publication, 118, 133-148 (1992).
 
[65]  Manahan, S.E., Environmental Chemistry, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, (2000).
 
[66]  Radojeviae, M. and Bashkin, V.N., Practical Environmental Analysis, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (2006).
 
[67]  Jambe, A.S and Nandini N., American J. of Environmental Sciences, 5, 678-687 (2009).
 
[68]  World Health Organization, Lead in Drinking Water : Background Documents for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking water Quality WHO/SDE/WSH/ 03.04/09/Rev/1, Geneva (2016).
 
[69]  World Health Organization, Nickel in Drinking Water, Background Documents for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking water Quality, WHO/SDE/WSH/ 07.08/55, Genera (2007).
 
[70]  World Health Organization. Sulphate in Drinking Water, Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking water Quality, WHO/SDE/WSH/ 03.04/114, Geneva (2004a).
 
[71]  Mishra, A & Tripathy. B.D. : Seasonal & temporal variation in physico-chemical & bacteriological characteristics of river Ganga in Varanasi, Current World Environment, 2(2), 149-154 (2007).
 
[72]  Ewa, E.E, Lwara, A.I., Adeyemi, J.A., Eya, E.I., Ajake, A.O. & Out, C.A. : Impact of industrial activities on water quality of Omuko Creek, Sacha. J. Environmental Studies, 1(2), 08-16 (2011).
 
[73]  Maiti, S.K., Hand Book of Methods in Environmental Studies, Vol.1: Water & Waste Water Analysis, ABD Publishers, Jaipur. (2004).
 
[74]  Gujurat State Board of School Text book, Ecosystem, in Biology, Standard 12, Semester III, Gandhinagar (2012).
 
[75]  Sawyer. C.N. and Mc Carty P.L., Chemistry for Sanity Engineers, Mc Graw Hill, New York (1967).
 
[76]  Tape, Y. and Mutlu, E. Physico-chemical characteristics of Hatay Harbiye Spring water, Turkey J. of inst. of Sci. and Tech. of Dumlupinar University, 6, 77-88 (2005).
 
[77]  Rim-Rukeh, A., Lkhifa, O.G. & Okokoyo. A.P. Effect of agricultural activities on the water quality of Orogodo river, Agbor, Nigeria, J. of Appl. Sci. Res., 2(5), 256-259 (2006) .
 
[78]  Adeyemo, O.K., Adedokum, O.T., Yusuf, R.K. & Adeleye, E.A. : Seasonal changes in physico-chemical parameters and nutrients load of sediments in Ibadan city, Nigeria, Global NEST Journal, 10(3), 326-336 (2008).
 
[79]  Gaine, M.A., Khan, M.I. & Muni, P : Seasonal variation of in physico-chemical Characterstics of Pahuja Reservoir, Jhansi, Bundelkhand region, central India, Int. J. of Current Research, 4(12), 115-118 (2012).
 
[80]  WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva (2004) .
 
[81]  Fluoride in drinking water, Background document of development of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, WHO/SDE/WSH/ 03.04.96.
 
[82]  Sadat, Nazneen : Study of Fluoride concentration in the river Godavari and ground water of Nandeed city, Int. J. of Engg. Inventions, 1(1) 11-15 (2012).
 
[83]  Panda, R.B. et al : Occurrence of fluoride in ground water of Patripal panchayat in Balasore district, Odisha, India, Journal of Environment 01(02), 33-39 (2012).
 
[84]  Mishra, A.K., Mishra, A and Prema J, Escalation of ground water fluoride; Ganga Alluvial Plains of India, Fluoride, 39, 35-38 (2006).
 
[85]  Rounds, S.A., Wilde F.D. & Ritz. G.F., Dissolved oxygen (Version 3.0), Book 9, Chapter A6, Section 6.2, U.S. geological Survey Techniques of Water ¨C Resources Investigations, http://water.Usgs. Gov/owg/ Field Manual / Chapter 6/6.2 V3.0 pdf, Assessed on 13.10.2013 (2013).
 
[86]  Pradhan, U.K., Shirodhkar, P.V. & Sahu, B.K. : Physico-chemical evaluation of its seasonal changes using chemometric techniques, Current Science, 96(9), 1203-1209 (2009).
 
[87]  Laluraj, C.M., Padma, P., Sujatha, C.H., Nair, S.M., Kumar, N.C. & Chacko : Base line studies on chemical constituents of Kayamkulam Estuary, near to newly commissioned NTPC power station, Ind. J. of Envtl. Parten, 22 (7), 721-731) (2002).
 
[88]  Dash, A. Das, H.K., Mishra, B and Bhuyan, N.K. : Evaluation of water quality of local strings and Baitarini river in Joda area of Odisha, India, Int. J. of current research, 7(3), 13559-13568 (2015).
 
[89]  Koshy, M. & Nayar, P.V. : Water quality of river Padma at Kozen Cherny, Pol. Res., 19(4), 665-668 (2000).
 
[90]  Swarnalatha, P., Rao, K.M., Kumar, P.V.R. and Harikrishna, M : Water quality assessment by using an index at village level-A case study, Poll. Res., 26, 619-622 (2007).
 
[91]  Champan D., Water Quality Assessment, A Guide to Use to of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environment Monitoring, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, London (1996).
 
[92]  Sekabira K., Oryem, O.H., Basamba, T.A., Mutumba, G. and Kakudidi, E., Int. J of Env. Sci. & Tech., 7, 435-446 (2010).
 
[93]  Mohiuddin, K.M., Zakir H.M., Otomo, K., Sharmin, S. and Shikazono, N., Int. J. of Env. Sci. and Tech. 7, 17-28 (2010).
 
[94]  Sun, W., Sang, L. and Jiang, B., Journal of Soils and Sediments, 12, 1649-1657 (2012).
 
[95]  Sing, V.K., Sing, K.P. and Mohan, D., Status of heavy metals in water and bed sediments of river Gomati ¨C A tributary of Ganga river, India Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 105, 43-67 (2005).
 
[96]  Priyadarshni, N., Distribution of arsenic in Permian coals of North Karanapura coal field, Jharkhand, J. Geol. Soc. India, 63, 533-536 (2004).
 
[97]  Karadade, A.H. and Unlu. E. ; Heavy metal concentration in water, sediments, fish and some benthic organisms from Tigris river, Turku, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 131, 323-337 (2007).
 
[98]  Hayashi, H, Taski, M. Uchiyama, N. and Morita, M. : Water quality and pollution load during flood and non-flood periods in an Urban tidal river, NOVATECH, 1-10 (2013).
 
[99]  Hayasi, H, Kohsaka, N., Ishizllka, Y. and Morita, M. : Pollutant load for flood and non-flood periods in Urban Small tidal rivers, Proceedings of Japan-Korea Special work shop on impact assessment and control of combined sewer over flow, associated even of the 4th IWA ASPIRE conference & exhibition, Tokyo, Japan (2011) .
 
[100]  Gulumbe, B.H, Aluya, B. and Manga, S.S. : Bacteriological and physico-chemical analysis of Aliero Dum water, Nigeria, Int. J of Innov. Stds. In Sci. and Engs. Tech. (IJISSET), 2(4), 24-30 (2016).
 
[101]  Gebreyohannes, F, Gebrekidan A et al, Investigation of physico-chemical parameters and its pollution implications of Elala river, Makelle, Ethopia, Ethopian J. of sci. (MEJS), 7(2), 240-257 (2015).
 
[102]  Malviya, P., Dewivedi, A.K. etal. Chemical assessment of Narmada river water, Int. J. of chemical studies, 3(2), 01-04 (2015).
 
[103]  Malviya, A., Diwakar, S.K. et al, Chemical assessment of Narmada river water at Hoshangabad city and Nemawar in central India, Oriental J. of Chem, 26(1), 319-323 (2010).
 
[104]  Saha, K.A. and Josi. G.S., Evaluation of water quality index of river of Sabaramati, Gujrat, India, Appl. Water Sci. 7, 1349-1358 (2017).
 
[105]  Kumar, R.N, Solanki, R & Kumar, N, An assessment of seasonal variation of water quality index of Sabaramati river and Kharicut canal at Ahamedabad, Gujrat, Eloctronics J. of Environmental, Agriculture & Food chemistry, 2248-2261 (2011).
 
[106]  Sharma, N and Walia, Y. K., Water quality investigation by physico-chemical parameters of Salty river, Himachal Pradesh, Current World Environment, 12(1), 174-180 (2017).
 
[107]  Sharma, V. and Wallia, Y.K. : Water quality assessment using physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals of Govinda Sagar lake HP, India, Current World Environment, 10(3), 967-974 (2015) .
 
[108]  Bhor, M, Kadave, P., Bhor, A. et al : Water quality assessment of the river Godavari at Ramkund, Nasik, India, Int. J. of Engg. & Sci., 2(2), 64-68 (2013).
 
[109]  Rathore, D.S., Rai, N. and Ashiya. P. : Physico-chemical analysis of water of Ayod river at Udayapur, Rajstan, India, Int. J. of Innov. Res. In Sci. Engg. And Tech., (IJIRSET), 3(4), 11160-11167 (2014).
 
[110]  Sarawade, A.B. and Kamble, N.A. : Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of river Krishna, Sangli, Maharastra, Octa, J. of Environ. Res., 2(4), 329-337 (2014).
 
[111]  Sahu, P., Karad, S., Chavan, S and Khandelwal. S. : Physico-chemical analysis of Mula Mutha river at Pune, India, Civil Engg. and Urban Planning : Int. J. (CIVEJ), 2(2), 37-46 (2015).
 
[112]  Kevat, D, Dubey, M., Sexena A. and Gour. A, Assessment of water quality index of Saank river at Morena, M.P., Int. J. of Sci. and Tech. Res (IJSETR), 5(8), 2563-2567 (2016).
 
[113]  Sing, R.P.. Dan, M.T., and Sahaya, U, : Water pollution and its effect, Indian J. of Env. & Eco. Planning, 12(2), 487-494 (2006) .
 
[114]  Bibhas, R.K. and Sharma, G.D. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Barak river, Assam, Appl. Water Science, 3, 625-630 (2013).
 
[115]  Tiwari, R.K. Rajak, G.P. and Mondal. A., Water quality analysis of Ganga river in Bihar region, India, J. of Env. Sci. and Engg., 4, 326-335 (2005).
 
[116]  Khare, R, Khare, S, Kamboj, M. and Pande. J. : Physico-chemical analysis of Ganga river water ; Asian J. of Biochem. and Pharm. Res., 1,232-239 (2011).
 
[117]  Shrivastav, V.K., Indian rivers pollution- critical analysis, Ganga action plan; Indian Chemical Engg., 52, 155-156 (2010).
 
[118]  Singh, H., Raghuvanshi, etal, Assessment of seven heavy metals in water of river Ghaghara, a major tributary of Ganga in north India., Adv. Sci. Res., 7, 34- 45 (2016).
 
[119]  Khan, M.Y., Gain, K.M and Chakrapani, G.J., Spatial and temporal variations of physico- chemical and heavy metal pollution in Ramganga river, a tributary of river Ganga, India Environ. Earth Sci., 76, 231-236, (2017).
 
[120]  Hiritash., A.K., Gong, S. and Garg, S., Assessment of water quality and Suitability analysis of river Gomati, a tributary of river Ganga, India, Environ, Monit, Assessment, 105, 43- 67 (2005).
 
[121]  Singh, V.K ., Singh, K.P and Mohan, D., Status of heavy metals in water and bed sediments of river Gomati, a tributary of river Ganga, India, Environ, Monit, Assessment, 105, 43-67 (2005).
 
[122]  Moza, U. and Mishra, D.N. : River Beas Ecology and Fishery, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (2007).
 
[123]  Hujare, M.S.; Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters of perennial tank at Talsande, Maharastra", Ecotoxical, Environ. Monitoring, 18 (3), 233-242 (2008).
 
[124]  Mallika, S:, Umamaheswari. R.& Krishnamoorthy; Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological study of Vaigai river water, Madurai dist. Tamilnadu, India; Int. J. of Fisheries & Aquatic Studs., 5(1), 42-45 (2017).