American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(1), 9-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-2
Open AccessArticle

The State of Wetlands of the Manipur Valley in Northeast India in View of Changing Time

Premananda Laishram1 and Kshetrimayum K.S.1,

1Department of Earth Science, Assam University, Silchar - 788011, India

Pub. Date: March 08, 2018

Cite this paper:
Premananda Laishram and Kshetrimayum K.S.. The State of Wetlands of the Manipur Valley in Northeast India in View of Changing Time. American Journal of Water Resources. 2018; 6(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-2

Abstract

The Manipur valley is located as an intramontane basin filled with alluviums of fluvio-lacustrine origin of Quaternary age in the Indo-Myanmar Range of Northeast India. The valley is confined between 24°16′ and 25°2′ North latitudes and 93°41′ and 94°9′ East longitudes covering an area of ~1920km2 with a population of more than 2 million people. This valley is mainly occupied by wetlands like ponds, swamps, paleochannels, lakes, agricultural fields and flood plains. Historically, these wetlands have been emotionally relating to cultural and ritual activities, fortification and recreational activities since the beginning of the Manipuri culture. To assess the quality of these wetland waters, several hydrochemical parameters like pH, Temperature, TDS, EC, ORP, HCO3, CO3, SO4, Cl, Na, K, Mg, Ca, PO4, F, H4SiO4, Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W were determined. The analysis suggests that the water is fresh and suitable for human consumption as well as and flora and fauna adaptation. Presently, the wetlands are used for water supplies for domestic, irrigation, industrial purposes and fish production. The rapid urbanization, massive increase in population, local climate change cause significant diminishing and shrinkage of these wetlands and thus creating a cultural gap as the ritual activities around these surface water bodies are no more practiced. Further, mismanagement and negligence on the treatment of domestic solid waste deteriorate the quality. Artificial eutrophication coupled with climate change as it reduces oxygen level and increases acidic level in the wetland waters further worsen the quality leading to the extinction of some fish species from these waters. Therefore, it is high time to avoid demolishing these wetlands and rejuvenate them to maintain the age old socio-cultural relationship it bears.

Keywords:
wetlands kingdom society urbanization eutrophication Manipur valley

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  MRSAC (2012), Manipur remote sensing application centre, Landuse/landcover map, Gov. of Manipur.
 
[2]  Keddy, P.A., Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2010, pp. 497.
 
[3]  Laisam, K.S., Encyclopedia of Manipur, Vol 3, Gyan Publishing House, 2011, pp. 1175.
 
[4]  Soibam, I., Structural and tectonic analysis of Manipur with special reference to evolution of the Imphal Valley. Ph.D thesis, 1998, pp 235, Manipur University, India, http://hd.handle.net/10603/39464.
 
[5]  Ranga Rao., A., Geology and hydrocarbon potentials of a part of Assam-Arakan basin and its adjoining region. Symposium petroliferous basins of India, 1983, pp. 127-158.
 
[6]  Kshetrimayum, K.S. and Thokchom, L. (2017) Hydrogeochemical approach to evaluate the occurrence and source of salinization in the shallow aquifers of the eastern Imphal valley in the Indo-Myanmar Range of Northeastern India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76:714-732, 2017.
 
[7]  CGWB., Central Ground Water Board, Groundwater information booklet Imphal west district, Manipur, Technical report series D, No. 28/2009-10, 2009.
 
[8]  Hill, R.A., Geochemical patterns in Coachella Valley, California. Trans Am Geophys Union 21:46-53, 1940.
 
[9]  Dasgupta, M., A study on the Limnology of two freshwater ponds of Imphal, Manipur. Indian Journal of Fish, vol. 40(4), pp. 256-261, 1993.
 
[10]  Soram, J.S., Gurumayum, S., and Abujam, S.K., Diversity of fish and insect fauna of ‘Sidizii’ A hill stream, Manipur, International journal of science and nature, vol. 3(4), pp. 836-841, 2012.
 
[11]  Khan, M.A., Ahmad, S., and Matloob, H., Landuse pattern, house design and health in Imphal valley, The NEHU journal, Vol. X (1), pp.81-92, 2012.