American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(1), 9-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-2
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The State of Wetlands of the Manipur Valley in Northeast India in View of Changing Time

Premananda Laishram1 and Kshetrimayum K.S.1,

1Department of Earth Science, Assam University, Silchar - 788011, India

Pub. Date: March 08, 2018

Cite this paper:
Premananda Laishram and Kshetrimayum K.S.. The State of Wetlands of the Manipur Valley in Northeast India in View of Changing Time. American Journal of Water Resources. 2018; 6(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-6-1-2


The Manipur valley is located as an intramontane basin filled with alluviums of fluvio-lacustrine origin of Quaternary age in the Indo-Myanmar Range of Northeast India. The valley is confined between 24°16′ and 25°2′ North latitudes and 93°41′ and 94°9′ East longitudes covering an area of ~1920km2 with a population of more than 2 million people. This valley is mainly occupied by wetlands like ponds, swamps, paleochannels, lakes, agricultural fields and flood plains. Historically, these wetlands have been emotionally relating to cultural and ritual activities, fortification and recreational activities since the beginning of the Manipuri culture. To assess the quality of these wetland waters, several hydrochemical parameters like pH, Temperature, TDS, EC, ORP, HCO3, CO3, SO4, Cl, Na, K, Mg, Ca, PO4, F, H4SiO4, Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W were determined. The analysis suggests that the water is fresh and suitable for human consumption as well as and flora and fauna adaptation. Presently, the wetlands are used for water supplies for domestic, irrigation, industrial purposes and fish production. The rapid urbanization, massive increase in population, local climate change cause significant diminishing and shrinkage of these wetlands and thus creating a cultural gap as the ritual activities around these surface water bodies are no more practiced. Further, mismanagement and negligence on the treatment of domestic solid waste deteriorate the quality. Artificial eutrophication coupled with climate change as it reduces oxygen level and increases acidic level in the wetland waters further worsen the quality leading to the extinction of some fish species from these waters. Therefore, it is high time to avoid demolishing these wetlands and rejuvenate them to maintain the age old socio-cultural relationship it bears.

wetlands kingdom society urbanization eutrophication Manipur valley

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