American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(4), 132-141
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-5-4-6
Open AccessArticle

Analysis on River Bank Erosion-Accretion and Bar Dynamics Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

Probir Kumar Pal1, Afeefa Rahman1, and Dr. Anika Yunus1

1Department of Water Resources Engineering (WRE), Bangladesh university of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Pub. Date: November 15, 2017

Cite this paper:
Probir Kumar Pal, Afeefa Rahman and Dr. Anika Yunus. Analysis on River Bank Erosion-Accretion and Bar Dynamics Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(4):132-141. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-4-6

Abstract

Dudhkumar River flows from upstream of India Border at Bhurungamari to the confluence with Brahmaputra River at Noonkhawa of Kurigram district having a stretch of 64 km in Bangladesh. Due to onrush of water from upstream in monsoon, erosion in Dudhkumar River takes a serious turn, threatening collapse of Sonahat Bridge in Bhurungamari, embankment on its right bank, dykes and several dwelling houses in recent years establishing the river as a destructive one. Thus study aiming at computing the long and short term bank line shifting along the river is of great significance. In this study, images of Landsat MSS and TM acquired from the year 1973 to 2015 have been used to investigate the riverbank migration pattern, accretion-erosion, rate of change of width, sinuosity and island dynamics of Dudhkumar River. For the short term analysis, migration rates are calculated from one Landsat image to the next. For long term analysis, the migration rates are calculated based on the difference between the 1973 image as the reference and subsequent images. From the short-term analysis, the mean erosion and accretion rate have been estimated as 128 m/y and 194 m/y on the left bank, and 141 and 176 m/y on the right bank indicating the accretion rate as greater than the erosion rate. Erosion rate has been found as greater in right bank rather than left bank and accretion rate is much more in left bank than the right bank. Due to high discharge, maximum erosion and accretion have been found as 349 m/y and 410 m/y respectively at left bank in 2013-2015 indicating the bank protection measures vulnerable. Computations on sinuosity of the river Dudhkumar River show that the sinuosity ranges from 1.36 to 1.53 showing significant increase in year 1989, 1997 and 2011 due to active erosion and deposition induced by monsoon flood. Analyses on island dynamics reveal that the island area started increasing after 1973 and maximum island area found in 2001. The analysis divulged that the Dudhkumar River is a highly meandering river with several critical sections where the river has been suffering enormously with erosion problem and shifting.The present study also identifies steadfast evidence on the dynamic fluvio-geomorphology of Dudhkumar River depicting urge for execution of erosion control schemes.

Keywords:
Dudhkumar River Bankline shifting Erosion-accretion Morpho-dynamics LANDSAT

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  BWDB, (2011). Rivers of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Water Development Board, August.
 
[2]  Sarkar et.al, "RS-GIS Based Assessment of River Dynamics of Brahmaputra River in India", Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2012, 4, 63-72.
 
[3]  Lawler, D.M., Couperthwaite, J., bull, L.J. and Harris, N.M., 1997. Bank Erosion Events and Processes in the Upper Severn Basin, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1(3): 523-534.
 
[4]  Azuma, R., Sekiguchi, H., Ono, T., 2007. In: Studies of High-resolution Morphodynamics with Special Reference to River Bank Erosion vol. 50(C). Annuals of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan, pp. 199-209.
 
[5]  Kammu, M., Lu, X.X., Rasphone, A., Sarkkula, J., Koponen, J., 2008. Riverbank changes along the Mekong River: remote sensing detection in the Vientiane NongKhai area. Quaternary International 186, 100-112.
 
[6]  Nabi et.al (2016). " Historical Bankline Shifting Since 1760s: A GIS and Remote Sensing Based Case Study of Meghna River Plate of Rennell’s Atlas", International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016, ISSN 2250-3153, P-473-483.
 
[7]  Baki, A.B.M., Gan, T.Y., 2012. Riverbank migration and island dynamics of the braided Jamuna River of the Ganges Brahmaputra basin using multi-temporal Landsat images. Quaternary International 263, 146-161.
 
[8]  Khan., 2014. “A study on River Bank Erosion of Jamuna River using GIS and Remote Sensing Technology.” Volume-II, M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Water resources Engineering, BUET.
 
[9]  Hossain, M.A., Gan, T.Y., Baki, A.B.M., 2013. Assessing morphological changes of Ganges River using satellite images. Quaternary International 304, 142-155.
 
[10]  Afrose, S., 2012. “Morphological Analysis of Teesta River”, B. Sc. Engineering Thesis, Department of Water Resources Engineering, BUET.
 
[11]  Takagi, T., Oguchi, T., Matsumoto, J., Grossman, M.J., Sarker, M.H., Matin, M.A., 2007. Channel braiding and stability of the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh, since 1967: GIS and remote sensing analyses. Geomorphology 85, 294-305.
 
[12]  Sarker, M.H., Thorne, C.R., 2006. Morphological response of the BrahmaputraPadma Lower Meghna river system to the Assam earthquake of 1950. In: Sambrook Smith, G.H., Best, J., Bristow, C.S., Petts, G.E. (Eds.), Braided Rivers: Process, Deposits, Ecology and Management. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 36. Blackwell, London, pp. 289-310.
 
[13]  Hossain, M.J., 2010. “Assessment of Instream Flow Requirement for Dudhkumar River”, M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Water resources Engineering, BUET.
 
[14]  Asad., 2013. “A Flood frequency Modeling using Gumbel’s and Powell’s method for Dudhkumar River” B. Sc Engineering Thesis, Depsrtment of Civil Engineering, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh.
 
[15]  Zaman, M., 2017. “Morphological changes of the Dudhkumer River by using HEC-RAS”, B.Sc. Engineering Thesis, Department of Water Resources, BUET.
 
[16]  Pakistan Techno-Consult Consulting Engineers, 1969. “Kurigram Flood Control and Irrigation Project”, Feasibility Study and Report. Vol-I. December.
 
[17]  HCL, IWM, DDC Ltd., BETS Ltd., 2009. “Drainage and Morphological Modeling Technique for Drainage Improvement and Finalization of the Location of Pump Houses and Intake Channels”, Kurigram Irrigation Project, north Unit, Final Report, September.
 
[18]  EGIS Environment and GIS Support Project for Water Sector Planning, 2002. “Developing and updating Empirical Methods for Predicting Morphological Changes of Jamuna River Information System”, (EGIS) Technical Note Series 29, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
 
[19]  IWM, 2009. “Topographic Survey and Detail Irrigation Planning using Mathematical Modelling Technique, Kurigram Irrigation Project, North Unit”, Final Report, VolI & II; May.
 
[20]  DPM Ltd., KRANTI and BETS Ltd, 2005. “Updating/Upgrading Feasibility Study of Kurigram Irrigation Project (North Unit)”, Final Report, July.
 
[21]  Schumm, S.A., 1985. “Patterns of alluvial rivers”, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 13, 5-27.