American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(3), 72-84
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Re-evaluation of Shallow Floodplain Aquifers Groundwater Potentials and Storage of Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria

Hamidu H.1, , Lawal M.1, Abdulganiyu Y.2, Kwaya M. Y.1, Grema H. M.1, Ibrahim H.A.1, Kitha M.1 and Yelwa N.A.1

1Department of Geology Faculty of Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Geology Faculty of Science Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Pub. Date: August 09, 2017

Cite this paper:
Hamidu H., Lawal M., Abdulganiyu Y., Kwaya M. Y., Grema H. M., Ibrahim H.A., Kitha M. and Yelwa N.A.. Re-evaluation of Shallow Floodplain Aquifers Groundwater Potentials and Storage of Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(3):72-84. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-3


Floodplains of Sokoto Basin with covering about 280,000 hectares of land was assessed for its shallow groundwater potentials. Data on pumping test of tube wells, logs and drilled tube wells were utilized for this study. Storativity was determined from known lithology of tube wells. Results of this study gives the ranges and averages of Hydraulic parameters for the shallow alluvial aquifers of hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, specific capacity and storativity to be 6.66 - 1316 m/day and 214,044 m/day, 40 – 3950 m2/day and 799.5 m2/day, 12.25 – 5763.6 m3/day and 1,031m3/day and 1×10-5 - 6×10-3 and 5×10-4 respectively, While the Yields range of 0.3- 7 l/s was obtained with 90% of tube wells evaluated having yields of 2.2 l/s and above. Lithologic Aquiferous units vary from medium sands, sands, coarse sands to gravel with thickness range of between 0.3 to 15 m. Computed hydraulic conductivity indicates the aquifer materials to be gravels and alluvial sands of high permeability. Specific capacity values indicated the wells to be of high productivity when compared with standard values, Transmissivity average revealed the area to be of high groundwater transmission potentials. Overall assessment of the yields of tube wells studied indicated that 90% of the wells have yields that are above the minimum required for irrigation; the low average drawdown of 0.41 m recorded is an indication that the aquifers have high efficiency and high performance as regards storage and transmission of water. Recharge of the alluvial aquifers is mainly through surface river flow and precipitation, climate change have recently threaten the recharge potential s owing to the drying up of some of these streams and rivers at the peak of dry season as well reduction in rainfall. Statistical analysis has shown a good linear relationship between Specific capacity with yield, Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity while Transmissivity is linearly related with yield and Conductivity. Generally the study revealed that the Sokoto basin Fadama land to be of high groundwater potentials, with storage coefficient values of confined and high yielding aquifers with capabilities of sustaining withdrawals for long period without recharge from external sources. Standard procedures are highly recommended to reduce or avoid the case of drilling abortive or low yielding wells.

floodplains alluvial aquifers hydraulic characteristics storativity confined aquifer Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 11


[1]  Swindell, K. Population and Agriculture in the Sokoto Rima of north-western Nigeria: A study of political intervention, adoption and change, 1800-1980. In: Cahiers d etudes africanes, (1986): vol. 26 no 101-102, pp 75-111.
[2]  Takeshima, H. Adeoti, A. Okoli, S., Salau, S. Rhoe, V. Demand characteristics for small- scale private irrigation technologies: knowledge gap in Nigeria. Abuja IFPRI. (2010): (Working paper, no 0018)
[3]  Anyadike, R. Seasonal and annual rainfall variations over Sudan. International journal of climatology, (1983): vol 13, pp 567-580.
[4]  Hess, T., Steephene, W. and Marya, U. Rainfall trends in the North-eastern Arid zone of Sudan: Agric and forest met., (1995): 74: pp 87-97.
[5]  Adams W.M., Traditional agriculture and water use in the Sokoto valley, Nigeria. The geographical journal (1986): 152(1): pp 30-43.
[6]  Dabi D.D. and Anderson W.P. Water scarcity and Sustainable Agricultural Development in Draught prone Semi-arid zone of West Africa: In Demaree. G. Alexandre, J. and Dapper, M. Eds. Proceedings of international conference Tropical climatology meteorology and Hydrology, held in Brussels, Belgium, (1998): pp 693-709.
[7]  Tarhule, A. and Woo, M. Characteristics and use of Shallow wells in a Stream Fadama: Applied geography, (1997): vol: 17 no 1 pp 29-42.
[8]  Ette, O.J., Okuolfu, C.A., Adi,e D.A., Igboro S.B., Alagbe, S.A. and Etteh, C.C. Application of environmental isotopes to assess the renewability of groundwater of Continental interclair aquifer of Sokoto Basin in northwestern Nigeria: Elsevier groundwater for sustainable development, (2017) : 4 pp 35-41.
[9]  Adelana SMA, Olasehinde IP and Vrbka p A Quantitative estimation of groundwater recharge in part of the Sokoto basin, Nigeria; journal of environmental hydrology. (2006): vol 14 paper 5. pp 1-16
[10]  Davies, G. Geology in Sokoto State in Maps, Ibadan University press. (1982): 6-7.
[11]  Kogbe, C.A. Geology of the southeastern (Sokoto) sector of the Iullemmeden basin, bulletin geology department Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria Nigeria. (1979): 2:1, pp 42-64.
[12]  Udoh, R. K. Geographical regions of Nigeria, Heineman, London. (1970).
[13]  Raeburn, C. and Tattam, C.M. A prelimininary note on the sedimentary rocks of Sokoto province. Niger. Geol. Surv Bull. (1930): 13 pp 57-60.
[14]  Jones B (1948) The sedimentary rocks of Sokoto province, Geological survey Nigeria bulletin 18: pp 1- 75.
[15]  Kogbe, C.A. Cretaceous and Tertiary of the Iullemmeden basin in Nigeria (West Africa): Cretaceous research. (1981): 2, 129-186, pp 30-186.
[16]  Anderson, H.R. and Ogilbee, W. Aquifer in the Sokoto Basin, Geol. Survey water supply paper. (1973): 1757, USGS Report, 79 p.
[17]  Oteze, G.E. Recharge characteristics of Rima aquifers, Sokoto Basin, Water resources, (1989): 1 (2), pp 154-160.
[18]  Bassey, J.O., Maduabuchi C, Onugba A, Verhagen BTH and Vrbka P. Preliminary results of Hydrogeological and isotopic research in the Rima River Basin, northwestern Nigeria, water resources. (1999) : 10 (1&2), pp 31-37.
[19]  Adelana SMA, Vrbka P, and Olasehinde PI Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Sokoto Basin, northwestern Nigeria, West Africa. Zentralblatt fur geologie und Palaontologie; Teit 1 Heft (2001) 3/4: 365-374; Stuttgart (Schweizerbart).
[20]  Adelana SMA, Olasehinde PI, and Vrbka P, Groundwater recharge in the cretaceous and tertiary sediment aquifers of northwestern Nigeria, using Hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. In: E Bocanegra, D, Martinez and H. Massone (eds) Estimation of groundwater recharge. (2002) pp 49-72.
[21]  Younger, P. L. Simple generalized methods for estimating aquifer Storage parameters. Quarterly journal of engineering geology: (1993): 26 pp 127-135.
[22]  MacDonald, A.M., Bosor, H.C., Calow, R.C., Taylo,r R.G., Lapworth D.J., Maurice, L., Tucker, J. and ODochartaigh, B.E Groundwater resilience to climate change in Africa. British Geological Survey open report, (2011): OR/11/031. 25P.
[23]  Enokela, O.S. and Abua, C.A. The yield characteristics of of the shallow aquifers of River Katsina Ala floodplain in Nigeria: international journal of sciences. (2013): vol : 2 , 9 pp77-85.
[24]  Abdullahi, A .S., Amin, A .S., Ahmad, D. and Umar, B., Characteristics of irrigation tube wells on major river floodplains in Bauchi state, Nigeria, Ambiente & Agus- an interdisciplinary journal of applied science: (2014) vol. 9 no.4 pp 602-609.
[25]  Cooper H.H. and Jacob,C.E, A Generalized Graphical Method for Evaluating Formation Constants and Summarizing Well-field History. Trans-America geophysical Union. (1946): 27. pp 526-534.
[26]  Georghe, A. Processing and Synthesis of Hydrogeological data Abacus press, Tumbridge Wells Kent. (1978): pp 122-136.
[27]  Krasny, J. Classification of transmissivity magnitude and variation. Groundwaterjournal of Association of groundwater scientists and engineers. (1993).
[28]  Hamidu, H., Abubakar, U., Abdulganiyu, Y., Usman, M.B. and Ibrahim, F.G. Groundwater resources evaluation of the Upper Bima Sandstone aquifer in Kaltungo area and environs, northeastern Nigeria: Zaria geographer, (2015) : vol. 22, no 1, pp 48-59.
[29]  Brassington, R. Field hydrogeology, Geological society of London professional hand book series. John Wiley and Sons, (1988): 175p.
[30]  Fauzie, M.J., Azwan, M.M.Z., Hasfalina, C.M. and Mohammed, T.A. Performance evaluation and characteristics of selected tube wells in the coastal alluvium aquifers of Selangor: pertanka journal of science and technology. (2014) : 22(1): pp 225-237.
[31]  Uma, K .O. and Kehinde, M. O. Potentials of regolith aquifers in relation to water supplies to rural communities: A case study from parts of northern Nigeria, journal of mining and geology, (1994) : 30(1): pp 97-109.
[32]  Chilton P.J. and Smith-Carington A.K. Characteristics of the weathered basement aquifer in Malawi in relation to rural water supplies: Challenges in African hydrology and water resources (proceedings in the Harare symposium, IAH Publ. (1984): no 144. Pp 57-72.