American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(3), 72-84
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Re-evaluation of Shallow Floodplain Aquifers Groundwater Potentials and Storage of Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria

Hamidu H.1, , Lawal M.1, Abdulganiyu Y.2, Kwaya M. Y.1, Grema H. M.1, Ibrahim H.A.1, Kitha M.1 and Yelwa N.A.1

1Department of Geology Faculty of Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Geology Faculty of Science Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Pub. Date: August 09, 2017

Cite this paper:
Hamidu H., Lawal M., Abdulganiyu Y., Kwaya M. Y., Grema H. M., Ibrahim H.A., Kitha M. and Yelwa N.A.. Re-evaluation of Shallow Floodplain Aquifers Groundwater Potentials and Storage of Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(3):72-84. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-3

Abstract

Floodplains of Sokoto Basin with covering about 280,000 hectares of land was assessed for its shallow groundwater potentials. Data on pumping test of tube wells, logs and drilled tube wells were utilized for this study. Storativity was determined from known lithology of tube wells. Results of this study gives the ranges and averages of Hydraulic parameters for the shallow alluvial aquifers of hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, specific capacity and storativity to be 6.66 - 1316 m/day and 214,044 m/day, 40 – 3950 m2/day and 799.5 m2/day, 12.25 – 5763.6 m3/day and 1,031m3/day and 1×10-5 - 6×10-3 and 5×10-4 respectively, While the Yields range of 0.3- 7 l/s was obtained with 90% of tube wells evaluated having yields of 2.2 l/s and above. Lithologic Aquiferous units vary from medium sands, sands, coarse sands to gravel with thickness range of between 0.3 to 15 m. Computed hydraulic conductivity indicates the aquifer materials to be gravels and alluvial sands of high permeability. Specific capacity values indicated the wells to be of high productivity when compared with standard values, Transmissivity average revealed the area to be of high groundwater transmission potentials. Overall assessment of the yields of tube wells studied indicated that 90% of the wells have yields that are above the minimum required for irrigation; the low average drawdown of 0.41 m recorded is an indication that the aquifers have high efficiency and high performance as regards storage and transmission of water. Recharge of the alluvial aquifers is mainly through surface river flow and precipitation, climate change have recently threaten the recharge potential s owing to the drying up of some of these streams and rivers at the peak of dry season as well reduction in rainfall. Statistical analysis has shown a good linear relationship between Specific capacity with yield, Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity while Transmissivity is linearly related with yield and Conductivity. Generally the study revealed that the Sokoto basin Fadama land to be of high groundwater potentials, with storage coefficient values of confined and high yielding aquifers with capabilities of sustaining withdrawals for long period without recharge from external sources. Standard procedures are highly recommended to reduce or avoid the case of drilling abortive or low yielding wells.

Keywords:
floodplains alluvial aquifers hydraulic characteristics storativity confined aquifer Nigeria

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