American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, 5(3), 63-71
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Determinants of Safe Drinking Water Supply in Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Muhammad Israr1, , Anas Faraz1 and Shakeel Ahmad2

1Department of Rural Development, AMKC, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar

2Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATE Abbottabad, Pakistan

Pub. Date: July 17, 2017

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Anas Faraz and Shakeel Ahmad. Determinants of Safe Drinking Water Supply in Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(3):63-71. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-2


Safe water supply can altogether enhance the personal satisfaction and is a wellspring of and the condition for economic development and water is at the core of sustainable development. Water resources, and the range of services they provide, underpin poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. The issue of water is observed as a general problem for both the urban and the rural population and lack of access to safe and clean water is locked in the heart of the poverty. Looking in to this research report was design with the objectives to access to safe drinking water supply and to find out the problems of households with respect to safe drinking water availability after the 2010 floods in Pirsabaq village of Nowshera by randomly selected 2761 households and was interviewed for the data through structured questioners. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents were of young age and literate having different level of education. Drinking water sources i.e. piped, protected dug well, unprotected dug well, and hand pump. The general methods of water storage were at household level were container with lid, container without lid, water tank on roof, drum, jeri cans, water cooler and pitcher. The household clean drinking water storage source were daily 75.26%, once a week 16.04%, once a month 5.61%, once a year 2.11%, never 0.98% and the reasons for not cleaning were the no time, no mean and not important respectively. The reason of long interval is, that the majority of water is clean is 30.49%. The drawing method of drinking water from the storage source were divided into four categories dipping a glass/jug or mug, long handle scoop, taps and drawing water from the container, 82.08% of the household have touch hand with water. The different water cleaning methods of the respondents were boiling (30.38%), water purification tablet/chlorine, use sachet/ packets and use ceramic/other filters. The study as whole concludes that provision of safe drinking water is still a challenge to the residents of the area and the households are still facing different challenges in it provision which can be overcome by rising awareness, introducing new methods of water treatment and strong monitoring of the water quality for different contents.

safe water water hygiene community development project

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Almas, H., Yaqub, G., Sadiq, Z., Tahir, A. and Noor ul Ain. (2013). Intensive report on total analysis of drinking water quality in Lahore. J. of Env. Sci. Vol. 3(6), pp. 2161-2171.
[2]  Anwar, K., Haider, M. A., Waseem, A., Zahra, S., and Murtaza, G. (2011). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of drinking water samples of different localities in Abbottabad district, Pakistan. Vol. 6(33), pp. 7480-7489.
[3]  Arouna A, Dabbert S (2010). Determinants of domestic water use by rural households without access to private improved water sources in Benin: A seemingly unrelated Tobit approach. Water Resources Manage, Vol 24, pp. 1381-1398.
[4]  Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010), Year Book Australia 2009-10, Canberra.
[5]  Arbués, F., M. A. Garcia-Valiñas, and R.Martinez-Espiñeira (2003). Estimation of residential water demand: A state-of-the-art review, J. Socio. Econ. Vol. 32(1), pp. 81-102.
[6]  Australian Research Centre for Water in Society (2002). Perth domestic water-use study household appliance ownership and community attitudinal analysis 1999-2000, report, CSIRO Land and Water, Floreat, West. Aust., Australia.
[7]  Armitage, C. J., and M.Conner (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analytic review, Br. J. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 40, pp 471-499.
[8]  Aitken, C. K., H.Duncan, and T. A.McMahon (1991). A cross-sectional regression analysis of residential water demand in Melbourne, Australia, Appl. Geogr, vol. 11, pp. 157-165.
[9]  Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Processes. Vol. 50, pp. 179-211.
[10]  Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
[11]  Beal, C., R. A. Stewart, and K. Fielding (2011). A novel mixed method smart metering approach to reconciling differences between perceived and actual residential end use water consumption, J. Clean. Prod..
[12]  Brooks, D. B. (2006). An operational definition of water demand management, Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. Vol. 22(4), pp 521-528.
[13]  Clark, W. A., and J. C.Finley (2007). Determinants of water conservation intention in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, Soc. Nat. Resour. Vol. 20(7), pp. 613-627.
[14]  Campbell, R. M., R. M.Johnson, and E. H.Larson (2004). Prices, devices, people, or rules: The relative effectiveness of policy instruments in water conservation, Rev. Policy Res. Vol. 21(5), pp 637-662.
[15]  De Oliver, M. (1999). Attitudes and inaction: A case study of the manifest demographics of urban water conservation, Environ. Behav. Vol. 31(3), pp. 372-394.
[16]  England, P. (2009). Managing urban water in Australia: The planned and the unplanned, Manage. Environ. Qual. Vol. 20(5), pp. 592-608.
[17]  Fielding, K. S., W. R.Louis, C.Warren, and A.Thompson (2011). Understanding household attitudes and behaviours toward waste, water and energy conservation, in Urban Consumption, edited by P.Newton, pp. 199-214, CSIRO Publ., Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.
[18]  Fogden, J. (2009). Access to safe drinking water and its impact on global economic growth. WA98021. Pp. 15-76.
[19]  Fielding, K. S., R.Mc Donald, and W. R. Louis (2008), Theory of planned behaviour, identity and intentions to engage in environmental activism, J. Environ. Psychol. Vol. 28, pp. 318-326.
[20]  Fielding, K. S., D. J.Terry, B. M.Masser, P.Bordia, and M. A.Hogg (2005). Explaining landholders' decisions about riparian zone management: The role of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs, J. Environ. Manage. Vol. 77, pp. 12-21.
[21]  Gilg, A., and S. Barr (2006). Behavioural attitudes towards water saving? Evidence from a study of environmental actions, Ecol. Econ. Vol. 57, pp. 400-414.
[22]  Grønhøj, A. (2006).Communication about consumption: A family process perspective on ‘green’ consumer practices, J. Consum. Behav. Vol. 5, pp. 491-503.
[23]  Gregory, G. D., and M.Di Leo (2003). Repeated behavior and enviornmental psychology: The role of personal involvement and habit formation in explaining water consumption, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 33(6), pp. 1261-1296.
[24]  Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern (1996). Environmental Problems and Human Behavior, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Mass. Vol. 56(3), pp. 407-424.
[25]  Geller, E. S., J. B.Erickson, and B. A. Buttram (1983). Attempts to promote residential water conservation with educational, behavioral, and engineering strategies, Popul. Environ. Vol. 6(2), pp. 96-112.
[26]  Hamilton, L. C. (1985), Self-reported and actual savings in a water conservation campaign, Environ. Behav. Vol. 17(3), pp. 315-326.
[27]  Inman, D., and P.Jeffrey (2006). A review of residential water conservation tool performance and influences on implementation effectiveness, Urban Water J. Vol. 3(3), pp. 127-143.
[28]  Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) (2011). Determinants of residential energy and water consumption in Sydney and surrounds: Regression analysis of the 2008 and 2010 IPART household survey data, report, Sydney, N. S. W. Australia.
[29]  Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) (2010). Residential energy and water use in Sydney, the Blue Mountains and Illawarra: Results from the 2010 household survey, report, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.
[30]  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2008). Climate Change and Water, IPCC Tech. Pap. VI, edited by B. Bates et al., Geneva, Switzerland.
[31]  Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) (2008). Residential energy and waer use in the Hunter, Gosford and Wyong, Res. Pap. 30, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.
[32]  Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) (2007). Residential energy and water use in Sydney, the Blue Mountains and Illawarra: Results from the 2006 household survey, report, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.
[33]  Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) (2004). Residential water use in Sydney, the Blue Mountains and Illawarra, Res. Pap. 26, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.
[34]  Jabeen, S., Qaisar, M., Sumabl, T., Bahadar, N. and Noor.E. (2011). Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad. Ayub Med. Coll. Vol.23 (1) pp. 47 50.
[35]  Jorgensen, B., M.Graymore, and K.O'Toole (2009). Household water use behavior: An integrated model, J. Environ. Manage. Vol. 91, pp. 227-236.
[36]  Jeffrey, P., and M.Gearey (2006). Consumer reactions to water conservation policy instruments, in Water Demand Management, edited by D.Butler and F.Ali Memon, pp. 303-329, IWA Publ., London.
[37]  Kenney, D. S., C.Goemans, R.Klein, J.Lowrey, and K.Reidy (2008). Residential water demand management: Lessons from Aurora, Colorado, J.Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Vol. 44(1), pp. 192-207.
[38]  Kenney, D. S., R. A.Klein, and M. P.Clark (2004). Use and effectiveness of municipal water restrictions during drought in Colorado, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. Vol. 40(1), pp. 77-87.
[39]  Kollmuss, A., and J.Agyeman (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?, Environ. Educ. Res. Vol. 8(3), pp. 239-260.
[40]  Kantola, S. J., G. J.Syme, and A. R.Nesdale (1983). The effects of appraised severity and efficacy in promoting water conservation: An informational analysis, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 13(2), pp. 164-182.
[41]  Lenntech (2017). Water supply in small communities By Lara Fabrizi; Retrieved from:, Dated; March 9, 2017.
[42]  Lam, S. (2006), Predicting intention to save water: Theory of planned behavior, response efficacy, vulnerability, and perceived efficiency of alternative solutions, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 36(11), pp. 2803-2824.
[43]  Lam, S.-P. (1999), Predicting intentions to conserve water from the theory of planned behavior, perceived moral obligation, and perceived water right, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 29(5), pp. 1058-1071.
[44]  Lyman, R. A. (1992), Peak and off-peak residential water demand, Water Resour. Res. Vol. 28(9), pp. 2159-2167.
[45]  Marieke, A., Butterworth, J., Godfrey, S., and Abera, M. (2016). Looking beyond headline indicators: water and sanitation services in small towns in Ethiopia. Vol. 3(6); pp 435-446.
[46]  Makki, A. A., R. A. Stewart, K. Panuwatwanich, and C. Beal (2012). Revealing the determinants of shower water end use consumption: Enabling better targeted urban water conservation strategies, J. Cleaner Prod..
[47]  Midden, C. J. H., F. G.Kaiser, and L. T.McCalley (2007). Technology's four roles in understanding individual's conservation of natural resources, J. Soc. Issues. Vol. 63(1), pp. 155-174.
[48]  Mayer, P. W., W. B. DeOreo, E. Towler, and L. Martien (2004). Tampa Water Department residential water conservation study: The impacts of high efficiency plumbing fixture retrofits in single-family homes, report, 211 pp. , Aquacraft, Inc., Boulder, Colo.
[49]  Mayer, P. W., and W. B.DeOreo (1999). Residential End Uses of Water, AWWA Res. Found., Denver, Colo.
[50]  Napacho, Z. A., and Manyele, S. V. (2010). Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District: Characterization of chemical parameters. J. of AEST. Vol. 4(11), pp. 775-789.
[51]  Nancarrow, B. E., Z. Leviston, M. Po, N. B. Porter, and D. I.Tucker (2008). What drives communities' decisions and behaviours in the reuse of wastewater, Water Sci. Technol. Vol. 57(4), pp. 485-491.
[52]  n, C. K., T. A. McMahon, A. J. Wearing, and B. L.Finlayson (1994). Residential water use: Predicting and reducing consumption, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 24(2), pp. 136-158.
[53]  Nieswiadomy, M. L. (1992). Estimating urban residential water demand: Effects of price structure, conservation, and education, Water Resour. Res. Vol. 28(3), pp. 609-615.
[54]  Ouellette, J. A., and W. Wood (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior, Psychol. Bull. Vol. 124(1), pp. 54-74.
[55]  Postel, S. L. (2000). Entering an era of water scarcity: The challenges ahead, Ecol. Appl. Vol. 10(4), pp. 941-948.
[56]  Postel, S. (1999). Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last?, W. W. Norton, New York.
[57]  Postel, S. L. (1996). Dividing the Waters: Food Security, Ecosystem Health, and the New Politics of Scarcity, Worldwatch Inst., Washington, D. C.
[58]  Queensland Water Commission (2010). South East Queensland water strategy, report, Brisbane, Queensl., Australia.
[59]  Richter, C. P., and R.Stamminger (2012). Water consumption in the kitchen: A case study in four European countries, Water Resour. Manage. Vol. 26, pp. 1639-1649.
[60]  Russell, S., and K.Fielding (2010). Water demand management research: A psycological perspective, Water Resour. Res., 46, W05302.
[61]  Randolph, B., and P.Troy (2008). Attitudes to conservation and water consumption, Environ. Sci. Policy. Vol. 11, pp. 441-455.
[62]  Renwick, M. E., and R. D.Green (2000). Do residential water demand side management policies measure up? An analysis of eight California water agencies, J. Environ. Econ. Manage. Vol. 40, pp. 37-55.
[63]  Renwick, M. E., and S. O.Archibald (1998). Demand-side management policies for residential water use: Who bears the conservation burden?, Land Econ. Vol. 74, pp. 343-359.
[64]  Shedayi, A. A., Jan, N., Riaz, S. and Xu, M. (2015). Drinking water quality status in Gilgit, Pakistan and WHO Standards. Sci. Int. Vol.27(3) pp. 2301-2311.
[65]  Saeed, T. U., and Attaullah, H. (2014). Impact of extreme floods on groundwater quality. Bri. J. of Env. and Climate Change, Vol. 4(1), pp. 133.
[66]  Sabrina, S., Palazzini, D., Sieliechi, J. M., and Ngassoum, M. B. (2013). Assessment of physical-chemical drinking water quality in the Logone Valley (Chad-Cameroon). Vol 5(6), doi:3060-3076.
[67]  Stewart, R. A., R. M.Willis, K.Panuwatwanich, and O.Sahin (2012). Showering behavioural response to alarming visual display monitors: Longitudinal mixed method study, Behav. Inst. Technol..
[68]  Steg, L., and C.Vlek (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda, J. Environ. Psychol. Vol. 29, pp. 309-317.
[69]  Syme, G., Q.Shao, M.Po, and E.Campbell (2004). Predicting and understanding home garden water use, Landscape Urban Plann. Vol. 68, pp. 121-128.
[70]  Stern, P. C. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior, J. Soc. Issues. Vol. 56(3), pp. 407-424.
[71]  Trumbo, C. W., and G. J. O' Keefe (2005). Intention to conserve water: Environmental values, reasoned action, and information effects across time, Soc. Nat. Resour. Vol. 18(6), pp. 573-585.
[72]  Turner, A., S.White, K.Beatty, and A.Gregory (2004). Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia, report, Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.
[73]  Trumbo, C. W., N. L.Markee, G. J.O'Keefe, and E.Park (1999). Antecedent precipitation as a methodological concern in attitude surveys on water conservation, Water Resour. Res. Vol. 35(4), pp. 1269-1273.
[74]  Terry, D. J., M. A.Hogg, and K. M.White (1999). The theory of planned behaviour: Self identity, social identity and group norms, Br. J. Soc. Psychol. Vol. 38, pp. 225-244.
[75]  United Nations (2009). Water in a Changing World, U. N. World Water Dev. Rep. 3, U. N. Educ., Sci. and Cultural Organ., Paris.
[76]  Vörösmarty, C. J., P.Green, J.Salisbury, and R. B.Lammers (2000), Global water resources: Vulnerability from climate change and population growth, Science. Vol. 289, pp. 284-288.
[77]  Walton, A., and M.Hume (2011). Creating positive habits in water conservation: The case of Queensland Water Commission and the Target 140 campaign, Int. J. Nonprofit Voluntary Sector Marketing. Vol. 16, pp. 215-224.
[78]  Willis,R. M., R. A. Stewart, K. Panuwatwanich, P. R. Williams, and A. L. Hollingsworth (2011). Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption, J. Environ. Manage. Vol. 92, pp. 1996-2009.
[79]  Water Corporation (2010). Perth residential water use study 2008/2009, report, Perth, West. Aust., Australia.
[80]  Zhang, H. H., and Brown, D. F. (2005). Understanding urban residential water use in Beijing and Tianjin, China, Habitat Int. Vol. 29(3), pp. 469-491.