American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(6), 121-129
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-4-6-1
Open AccessArticle

Identification of Critical Water Quality Parameters Derived from Principal Component Analysis: Case Study from NOIDA Area in India

Virendra Bahadur Singh1, 2 and Jayant Nath Tripathi1,

1Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nehru Science Centre Building, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India

2Department of Petroleum Engineering, Graphics Era University, Dehradun, India

Pub. Date: December 12, 2016

Cite this paper:
Virendra Bahadur Singh and Jayant Nath Tripathi. Identification of Critical Water Quality Parameters Derived from Principal Component Analysis: Case Study from NOIDA Area in India. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(6):121-129. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-6-1


Factor analysis is applied to 18 hydrochemical variables of groundwater quality for 33 groundwater samples to interpret the relationships with specific processes that control the quality of groundwater in Noida area which is a part of the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi in the river basin of Yamuna. The three factor model for this area explains 79.30% of total variance. Factor 1, which explains 47.25% of the total variance, has strong positive loadings on Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, TH, EC, TDS, Na+.Factor 2 explains 16.75 % of the total variance with moderate positive loadings on K+, HCO3, CIA, and Ca2+. Factor 3 explains 15.30 % of the total variance with strong positive loadings on Na % and SAR. Factor 1, 2 and 3 can be interpreted as salinity, alkalinity and pollution respectively.The geographical distribution of the factor scores at individual bore wells delineated boundaries, which define where groundwater is affected by salinization, alkalinity and pollution. In this study multivariate analysis reveals that the over-pumping and pollution caused differences in terms of water quality and hence for proper management of groundwater requires rainwater harvesting and water softening techniques to reduce the salinity.Thus, this study shows the effectiveness of multivariate statistical technique factor analysis for analysis and interpretation in the groundwater quality problem.

factor analysis groundwater quality noida area uttar pradesh

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