American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2016, 4(3), 58-67
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria

Obeta Michael Chukwuma1,

1Department of Geography, Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Pub. Date: August 17, 2016

Cite this paper:
Obeta Michael Chukwuma. Community Participation in the Rural Water Supply Sector of Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2016; 4(3):58-67. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-4-3-2

Abstract

The community participation policy has long been associated with rural development. Rural development planners opine that for rural development projects to succeed the host community must take active part in the development and management of such projects. Enugu state government has implemented the community participation policy in her rural water supply sector since the late 1990s. This paper examines the level of community participation in the development and management of rural water supply schemes in the state. It describes the water schemes, the practices of and factors constraining effective community participation in the area. In addition, the paper suggests strategies that can enhance the implementation of the policy in order to improve service delivery in the area. The research is largely qualitative, using data obtained through focus group discussion (FGD), interviews, observations and from records in the states agencies responsible for public water supplies. The research team interacted with 300 individuals, drawn from 15 communities hosting the 15 water schemes used in the study. The data generated were analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferences statistical tools. The results of the study revealed that practices of community participation in the study area vary widely. Genuine participation in critical stages of water projects such as selection of technology is either limited or lacking. Participation of Village Water Committees (VWCs) in the management of rural water supply schemes is mostly ceremonial and contributes little to the sustainable functioning of the schemes. Strategies that may aid the implementation of the policy are suggested.

Keywords:
community participation rural development water supply water supply schemes sustainability

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  ABAJE, I.B; ATI, O.F. & ISHAYA, S. (2009). “Nature of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria”. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences Vol. No 1, 16-21.
 
[2]  ADENLE, D. (2006). Institutional Issues in Water Supply, sanitation and their role in the attainment of the MDGs in Nigeria. Paper delivered at the 1st National Water and Sanitation Forum, Abuja, 29th August – 1st September.
 
[3]  AGNEW, C. and P. WOODHOUSE. (2011). Water Resources and Development. London and New York. Rout ledge.
 
[4]  AGRAWAL, A. (2002). Common Resources and Institutional Sustainability. In the drama of the Commons, eds. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P.C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E.U. Weber, 41-86. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
 
[5]  AKPOMUNJE, O.B (2010). “Self-help as a strategy for rural development in Nigeria: A bottom-up approach” Journal of Alternative perspectives in the Social Science Vol2. No. 1 Pp. 88-111.
 
[6]  BAGUMA, D. J. H. HASHIM, S.M. ALJUNID, And W. LOISKANDL. (2013). Safe-Water Shortages, Gender Perspectives, and Related Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Uganda. Science of the Total Environment, 442: 96-102.
 
[7]  BAILUR, S. (2007). “Community participation in rural information system projects. The complexities of community participation in ICT for development projects: Case of “Our Voices.” London School of Economics. Available online: http://www.ifipwg94org.br/fullpapers/R0010-1.pdf. [July 2009].
 
[8]  BATLEY, R. (2004). The politics of service delivery reforms. Development and change 351:31-56.
 
[9]  CARTER, C.R., F.S. TYRELL, And P. HOWSAM. (1999). Impact and Sustainability of Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes in Developing Countries. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environment 13: 292-296.
 
[10]  CHERLET, and J.P. VENOT (2013). Structure and Agency: Understanding Water Policy Changes in West Africa. Water Policy 15: 479-495.
 
[11]  CHITONGE, H. (2011). A Decade of Implementing Water Services Reform in Zambia: Review of Outcomes, Challenges and Opportunities. Water Alternatives 4 (3): 1-19.
 
[12]  CLEAVER, F, (2001). Institutions, Agency and the Limitations of Participatory Approaches to development. In: Cooke, B. Kothari, U. (Eds). Participation. The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London. Chapter 3.
 
[13]  CLEAVER, F. and A. TONER. (2006). The Evolution of Community water Governance in Uchira, Tanzania: The Implications for Equality of Access, sustainability and Effectiveness. Natural resources Forum 30: 207-218.
 
[14]  EZENWAJI, E.E. (2004). “Water Supply as a strategy for Rural Development in Anambra State”. Journal of Development, vol. 1., No. 2, pp. 71-80.
 
[15]  FOSTER, T. 2013. Predictors of Sustainability For Community-Managed Hand pumps in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Environmental Science and Technology 47 (21): 12037-12046.
 
[16]  GBADEGESIN, N & OLORUNDEMI, F (2007). Assessment of Rural Water Supply Management in Selected Rural Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, ATPS Working Paper Series No 49, African Technology Policy Studies Network (ATPS), Nairobi, Kenya.
 
[17]  GOIN, I.B (2006). The challenges of meeting domestic water supply in Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol. 42(1), pp. 51-55.
 
[18]  IMORO, B And N. FIELMUA (2011). Community Ownership and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities: Issues and Projects in the Nadowli District of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 13 (2): 74-87.
 
[19]  KUMAR, S. (2002). Methods for community participation. A complete guide for practitioners. London: ITDG Publishers.
 
[20]  MOZIE, A.T. (2011). “Analysis of settlement distribution Patter in two-terrain tracks: the Udi-Awgu Plateau and the Cross River plain in Enugu state, south Eastern Nigeria”. Nigeria Journal of Geography and the Environment Vol. 1. No. 1 & 2 pp. 237-246.
 
[21]  NAKANO, Y. And K. OTSUKA. (2011). Determinants of household Contributions to Collective Irrigation Management: The case of the Doho Rice Scheme in Uganda. Environment and Development Economics 16: 527-551.
 
[22]  NKONY, E. J. PENDER, And E. KATO. (2008). Who Know, Who Cares? The Determinants of Enactment, Awareness, and Compliance with Community Natural Resources Management Regulations in Uganda. Environment and development economics 13: 79-101.
 
[23]  NWANKOALA, H.O. (2011). “The Role of Communities in Improved Rural Water Supply Systems in Nigeria: Management Model and Its Implications for Vision 20:2020” Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, Vol. 1. No. 3 pp 295-302.
 
[24]  NWANKWO, C.F. (2014). Residential Water Demand and Supply in Awgu Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Department of Geography, university of Nigeria: Unpublished B.Sc Project.
 
[25]  NYABA, S. (2009). “Review of rural development policy for sustainable development” Presentation of the West African Regional Conference on Smart, Appropriate Technology for Rural Communities. Abuja, Nigeria.
 
[26]  NZEADIBE, T.C. And AJAERO, C.K. (2010). Assessment of Socio-Economic Characteristics and Quality of life Expectations of Rural Communities in Enugu state, Nigeria. Springer Science + Business Media B.V
 
[27]  OBETA, M.C And CHUKWU, K.E. (2013). “Water supply and Demand in Nigeria”, in Anyadike, R.N.C and Obeta, M.C. Water resources development and management in Nigeria. Merit international publication, Lagos, Nigeria Pp. 155-164.
 
[28]  OBETA, M.C. (2009). “The Development of Rural Water Supply Infrastructure in Nigeria” in Igbozurike, Ijeoma and Onyenechere (eds) Rural Water Supply in Nigeria, Owerri: Cape Publishers. Pp. 402-410.
 
[29]  OFOMATA, G.E.K (2002). Geology in Ofomata (ed) A survey of the Igbo Nation Africa. Onitsha: FEP.
 
[30]  OGHIFO, B., (2008). Water: ‘Nigeria’s Playing Games with Lives’. Retrieved May 7.2 008 from http://www.thisdayonline.com/.
 
[31]  OLALEYE, Y. L. (2010). “The contributions of the doctrine of citizens’ participation in organization and implementation of community development project” European Journal of Scientific Research: http://www.eurojournal.com/ejsr.htm/.
 
[32]  OLOKESUSI, F. (1990). “An Assessment of Water-Supply Situation in ECOWAS Countries and the policy Implications” Journal of Water SRT-Aqua,, vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 152-160.
 
[33]  OSTROM, E. (2011). Background on the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework. Policy Studies journal 39 (1): 7-27.
 
[34]  Singh, N. Jacks, G., Bhattacharya, P. 2005. Women and community water supply programmes: Analyses form a socio-cultural perspective. Natural Resources Forum, 29: 213-223.
 
[35]  THWALA, W.D. (2010). “Community Participation is a Necessity for Project Success: African Journal of Agricultural Research vol.5 (10) pp. 970979.
 
[36]  UDOH, E.J. & ETIM, N.A. (2007). Analysis of Domestic Water Consumption Pattern by Farming Households in Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria European Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2):76-82.
 
[37]  UNITED NATIONS (2006). Coping with Water Scarcity: A Strategic Issue and Priority for System-Wide Action. UN water Thematic Initiative
 
[38]  UNITED NATIONS (2007). Coping with Water Scarcity, Challenge of the Twenty-first Century. World Water Day, 22nd March, 2007.
 
[39]  VINCENT, L. (2003). Towards a smallholder hydrology for equitable and sustainable water management. Natural resources Forum, 27(2): 108-116.
 
[40]  WORLD BANK, (2005). Second Community Water and Sanitation Project. Republic of Ghana Implementation Completion Report, Washington DC, USA: World Bank.