American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2013, 1(3), 34-38
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3
Open AccessReview Article

Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index

Shweta Tyagi1, Bhavtosh Sharma2, , Prashant Singh1 and Rajendra Dobhal2, 3

1Department of Chemistry, DAV Post Graduate College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

2Uttarakhand Science Education and Research Center, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

3Uttarakhand Council of Science and Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Pub. Date: August 07, 2013

Cite this paper:
Shweta Tyagi, Bhavtosh Sharma, Prashant Singh and Rajendra Dobhal. Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index. American Journal of Water Resources. 2013; 1(3):34-38. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3


Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. However, WQI depicts the composite influence of different water quality parameters and communicates water quality information to the public and legislative decision makers. In spite of absence of a globally accepted composite index of water quality, some countries have used and are using aggregated water quality data in the development of water quality indices. Attempts have been made to review the WQI criteria for the appropriateness of drinking water sources. Besides, the present article also highlights and draws attention towards the development of a new and globally accepted “Water Quality Index” in a simplified format, which may be used at large and could represent the reliable picture of water quality.

ground water surface water quality water quality index

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Fourth Edition, World Health Organization ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1. 2012.
[2]  Bureau of Indian Standards, Specification for drinking water. IS: 10500, New Delhi, India, 2012.
[3]  United State EPA 816-F-09-004, May 2009, (Accessed 12 July 2013).
[4]  Guide Manual: Water and Waste Water, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. (Accessed 12 July 2013).
[5]  Bharti, N. and Katyal, D, “Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment”, Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2(1). 154-173. 2011.
[6]  Akoteyon, I.S., Omotayo, A.O., Soladoye, O. and Olaoye, H.O., “Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria”, Europ. J. Scientific Res, 54(2). 263-271. 2011.
[7]  Babaei Semiromi, F., Hassani, A.H., Torabian, A., Karbassi, A.R. and Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F., “Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon river of Iran”, African J. Biotech.., 10(50). 10125-10133. 2011.
[8]  Karbassi, A. R., Mir Mohammad Hosseini, F., Baghvand, A. and Nazariha, M., “Development of water quality index (WQI) for Gorganrood River”, Int. J. Environ. Res., 5(4). 1041-1046. Autumn 2011.
[9]  Das, K.K., Panigrahi, T., Panda, R.B., “Evaluation of water quality index (WQI) of drinking water of Balasore district, Odisha, India”, Discovery life, 1(3). 48-52. 2012.
[10]  Jena, V., Dixit, S., Gupta, S., “Assessment of water quality index of industrial area surface water samples”, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 5(1). 278-283. 2013.
[11]  Saberi Nasr, A., Rezaei, M. and Dashti Barmaki M., “Groundwater contamination analysis using Fuzzy Water Quality index (FWQI): Yazd province, Iran”, J Geope 3., (1). 47-55. 2013.
[12]  Abdulwahid, S.J., “Water quality index of delizhiyan springs and shawrawa river within soran district, erbil, kurdistan region of iraq”, J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 3(1). 40-48. 2013.
[13]  Srinivas, J., Purushotham, A.V. and Murali Krishna, K.V.S.G., “Determination of water quality index in industrial areas of Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India”, Int. Res. J Env. Sci., 2(5). 37-45. 2013.
[14]  Radmanesh, F., Zarei, H. and Salari, S., “Water Quality Index and Suitability of Water of Gotvand Basin at District Khuzestan, Iran”, Int. J. Agron. Plant Prod., 4(4). 707-713. 2013.
[15]  Bhadja, P. and Vaghela, A.K. “Assessment of physico-chemicalparameters and water quality index of reservoir water”, Int. J. Plant Animal and Environ. Sci., 3(3). 89-95. 2013.
[16]  Khwakaram, A.I., Majid, S.N. and Hama N.Y., “Determination of water quality index (wqi) for qalyasan stream in sulaimani city/ kurdistan region of Iraq”, Int. J. Plant Animal and Environ. Sci., 2(4). 148-157. 2012.
[17]  Mazhar, S. M., Khan, N. and Kumar, A.R. “Geogenic assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tiruchengode taluk, Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India, Chem Sci Trans., 2(3). 1021-1027. 2013.
[18]  Ansari, K. and Hemke, N. M., “Water quality index for assessment of water samples of different zones in Chandrapur city”, Int. J. Engineer. Res. Appli., 3(3). 233-237. 2013.
[19]  Sirajudeen, J., Manikandan, S.A. and Manivel, V., “Water quality index of ground water around Ampikapuram area near Uyyakondan channel Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India”, Archiv. Appl. Sci. Res., 5 (3). 21-26. 2013.
[20]  Patil, V.T. and Patil, P.R., “Groundwater quality status using water quality index in Amalner town, Maharashtra”, J. Chem. Pharmaceut. Res., 5(5). 67-71. 2013.
[21]  Sujaul, I.M., Hossain M.A., Nasly, M.A. and Sobahan, M.A., “Effect of industrial pollution on the spatial variation of surface water quality”, Ameri. J. Environ. Sci., 9 (2). 120-129. 2013.
[22]  Sharifinia, M., Ramezanpour, Z., Imanpour, J., Mahmoudifard A. and Rahmani, T., “Water quality assessment of the Zarivar Lake using physico-chemical parameters and NSF- WQI indicator, Kurdistan Province-Iran”, Int. J. Adv. Bio. Biomed. Res., 1(3). 302-312. 2013.
[23]  Srivastava, G. and Kumar, P., “Water quality index with missing parameters”, Int. J. Res. Engineer. Technol., 2(4). 609-614. 2013.
[24]  Jagadeeswari, P.B. and Ramesh, K., “Water quality index for assessment of water quality in south Chennai coastal aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India”, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 4(4). 1582-1588. 2012.
[25]  Chowdhury R.M., Muntasir S.Y. and Hossain M.M., “Study on ground water quality and its suitability or drinking purpose in Alathur block -Perambalur district”, Archiv. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(3). 1332-1338. 2012.
[26]  Nasirian. M., “A new water quality index for environmental contamination contributed by mineral processing: A case study of Amang (tin tailing) processing activity”, J. Appli. Sci., 7(20). 2977-2987. 2007.
[27]  Horton, R.K., “An index number system for rating water quality”, J. Water Pollu. Cont. Fed., 37(3). 300-305. 1965.
[28]  Brown, R.M., McClelland, N.I., Deininger, R.A. and Tozer, R.G., “Water quality index-do we dare?”, Water Sewage Works, 117(10). 339-343. 1970.
[29]  Bhargava, D.S, Saxena, B.S. and Dewakar, R.W., “A study of geo-pollutants in the Godavary river basin in India”, Asian Environ., 12. 36-59. 1998.
[30]  Dwivedi, S., Tiwari, I.C. and Bhargava, D.S., “Water quality of the river Ganga at Varanasi”, Institute of Engineers, Kolkota, 78, 1-4. 1997.
[31]  Fernandez, N., Ramirez, A. and Solano, F., “Physico-chemical water quality indices - a comparative review”, Revista Bistua. ISSN 0120-4211. Available at: Accessed: 18 September, 2012.
[32]  Dunnette, D.A., “A geographically variable water quality index used in Oregon”, J. Water Pollu. Cont. Fed., 51(1). 53-61. 1979.
[33]  Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. and Sharma, T., “Canadian water quality index to monitor the changes in water quality in the Mackenzie river–Great Bear”. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, (Oct. 21-23), Whistler, B.C., Canada. 2002.
[34]  Chaturvedi, M.K. and Bassin, J.K., “Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India”, Environ. Monit. Assess., 163. 449-453. 2010.
[35]  Bordalo, A.A., Nilsumranchit, W. and Chalermwat, K., “Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong river (Eastern Thailand)”, Water Res., 35(15). 3635-3642. 2001.
[36]  Kumar, D. and Alappat, B., “NSF-Water Quality Index: Does It Represent the Experts’ Opinion?”, Pract. Period. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste Manage., 13(1). 75-79. 2009.
[37]  CCME (2001). Canadian environmental quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, CCME water quality index: technical report, 1.0.
[38]  Khan, A.A., Paterson, R. and Khan, H., “Modification and Application of the CCME WQI for the Communication of Drinking Water Quality Data in Newfoundland and Labrador”, Proceedings of the 38th Central Symposium on Water Quality Research, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Burlington, Canada. 2003.
[39]  Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. and Sharma, T., “Application of CCME water quality index to monitor water quality: a case of the Mackenzie river basin, Canada”. Environ. Monit. Assess., 113. 411-429. 2006.
[40]  Khan, A.A., Tobin, A., Paterson, R., Khan, H. and Warren, R., “Application of CCME procedures for deriving site-specific water quality guidelines for the CCME water quality index”, Wat. Qual. Res. J. Canada.., 40(4). 448-456. 2005.
[41]  Kankal, N.C., Indurkar, M.M., Gudadhe, S.K. and Wate, S.R., “Water quality index of surface water bodies of Gujarat, India”, Asian J. Exp. Sci., 26(1). 39-48. 2012.
[42]  Dinius, S.H., “Design of an index of water quality”, Water Resou. Bull., 23(5). 833-843. 1987.
[43]  Cude, C.G., “Oregon water quality index: a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness”, J. American Water Resou. Assoc., 37(1). 125-137. 2001.
[44]  Chauhan, A. and Singh, S., “Evaluation of Ganga water for drinking purpose by water quality index at Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India”, Report Opinion, 2(9). 53-61. 2010.
[45]  Chowdhury, R.M., Muntasir, S.Y. and Hossain, M.M., “Water quality index of water bodies along Faridpur-Barisal road in Bangladesh”, Glob. Eng. Tech. Rev., 2(3). 1-8. 2012.
[46]  Rao, C.S., Rao, B.S., Hariharan, A.V.L.N.S.H. and Bharathi, N.M., “Determination of water quality index of some areas in Guntur district Andhra Pradesh”, Int. J. Appl. Bio. Pharm. Tech., I(1). 79-86. 2010.
[47]  Balan, I.N., Shivakumar, M. and Kumar, P.D.M., “An assessment of ground water quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India”, Chronicles Young Scient., 3(2). 146-150. 2012.
[48]  rown, R.M, McCleiland, N.J., Deiniger, R.A. and O’Connor, M.F.A. “Water quality index – crossing the physical barrier”, (Jenkis, S.H. ed.) Proceedings in International Conference on water pollution Research Jerusalem 6. 787-797. 1972.
[49]  Mnisi, L.N., “Assessment of the state of the water quality of the Lusushwana River, Swaziland, using selected water quality indices”. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare. 2010.
[50]  Wills, M. and Irvine, K.N., “Application of the national sanitation foundation water quality index in Cazenovia Creek”, NY, Pilot watershed management project. Mid. States Geograph., 95-104. 1996.
[51]  Terrado, M., Barcelo, D., Tauler, R., Borrell, E. and Campos, S.D., “Surface-water-quality indices for the analysis of data generated by automated sampling networks”, Trends Anal. Chem., 29(1). 40-52. 2010.
[52]  Abbasi, T. and Abbasi, S.A., “Water quality indices”. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2012.
[53]  Hubler, S., Miller, S., Merrick, L., Leferink, R. and Borisenko, A., “High level indicators of Oregon’s forested streams”, Lab. Environ. Assess. Div., Hillsboro, Oregon. 2009.
[54]  Yogendra, K. and Puttaiah E.T., “Determination of water quality index and suitability of an urban waterbody in Shimoga Town, Karnataka”, Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp. 342-346. 2008.