American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(4), 118-123
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Devastating Flood of 2010, Effect on Potabile Water Supply in Rural Swat

Muhammad Israr1, , M. Sadiq Hashmi2, Nafees Ahmad3, Gauhar Rahman4, Shakeel Ahmad5 and Shamsher Ali6

1Department of Rural Development, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan

2Department of Economics, Karakoram International University Gilgit – Baltistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand (Chakdara) Dir Lower-Pakistan

4Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP- Pakistan

5M.Phil Scholar, Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute, Abbottabad

6Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP-Pakistan

Pub. Date: October 08, 2015

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, M. Sadiq Hashmi, Nafees Ahmad, Gauhar Rahman, Shakeel Ahmad and Shamsher Ali. Devastating Flood of 2010, Effect on Potabile Water Supply in Rural Swat. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(4):118-123. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-3


This study was conducted in areas of KuzKunda, Ghat and KwaroTangi, Madyan Union Council of the rural Swat with the aims to assess the potable drinking water quality after the devastating flood of 2010, in the valley. For doing this forty samples of the spring water were collected from different ground water sources, i.e. tube wells, springs, dug wells and hand pumps in the area. These samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters including heavy metals Plumbum (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) and the results were compared with international standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). According to standards of WHO the pH, EC, total dissolves solids and Turbidity of spring water in all villages were in fewer amounts. But the concentration is higher than the standard of WHO in KuzKunda and KwaroTangi. Findings also show that most of the physio-chemical parameters, i.e. total suspended solids, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, chloride, sodium, potassium and zinc were, according to the international standard limits of WHO, while electrical conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, lead, chromium, nickel, calcium and magnesium were above the international standard of WHO. This is due to heavy metal contamination in the study area with mix zone rocks. These above limits of the mentioned ions lead to the unsafe drinking water quality of the Madyan area. The study recommends that the drinking spring water was generally of good quality, but it’s better to be chlorinated and boiled before use.

physico-chemical parameters heavy metals drinking water melange zone health risk

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