American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2015, 3(4), 109-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-2
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Urban Livestock Production on Groundwater Quality in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Terrumun Kenneth Kwadzah1, Oliver Terna Iorhemen1, and Charles Amen Okuofu2

1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Pub. Date: August 26, 2015

Cite this paper:
Terrumun Kenneth Kwadzah, Oliver Terna Iorhemen and Charles Amen Okuofu. Impact of Urban Livestock Production on Groundwater Quality in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2015; 3(4):109-117. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-3-4-2


Groundwater is the main source of water for most city dwellers in Nigeria. In this study, the impacts of urban livestock production on groundwater quality in Kaduna metropolis were assessed through water quality monitoring. Groundwater samples were collected from wells located around 2 abattoirs (Tudunwada and Kawo abattoirs) and in 8 livestock-keeping households for a 6-month period (July- December). Physico-chemical analyses were conducted on the samples using standard methods. Results indicate that groundwater is negatively impacted in terms of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus and cadmium; and this impact is of great concern as the values for these parameters are well in excess of established limits. There is negative impact in terms of pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and zinc but this impact is not a concern as most of the values are within limits. However, no impact was observed on groundwater quality in terms of calcium as it showed no definite pattern of variation. Similarly, iron exhibited very low concentrations in the samples with a few exceptions in the months of July and August for the two abattoir sites. Lead was not detected in any of the samples throughout the study period. This study indicates that livestock keeping and processing activities have negative impact on groundwater quality in Kaduna metropolis. The groundwater pollution due to urban livestock production emanates from point sources and control measures can be easily applied.

abattoir groundwater quality Kaduna metropolis livestock-keeping households urban livestock production wells

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