American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Water Resources. 2014, 2(1), 1-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-2-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Spatial Distribution and Variability of Groundwater Quality in State Capital and Contiguous Local Government Areas under Urbanization Expansion

Obot Ekpo Essien1, and Abasifreke E. Abasifreke1

1Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University of Nigeria, Uniuyo Post Office, Uyo, Nigeria

Pub. Date: February 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Obot Ekpo Essien and Abasifreke E. Abasifreke. Spatial Distribution and Variability of Groundwater Quality in State Capital and Contiguous Local Government Areas under Urbanization Expansion. American Journal of Water Resources. 2014; 2(1):1-9. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-2-1-1

Abstract

The objective was to investigate groundwater quality in boreholes located in Uyo urbanized state capital, and four contiguous Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibiono Ibom, Ikot Ekpene, Itu and Nsit Ubium, under Coastal Plain Sands(CPS) formation, for spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality and compatibility with Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ)indicating prospects of pollution diffusion due to urbanization spread. Standard examination methods were employed as well as morphological and bacteriological counts. Data on waterquality properties were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 17 for descriptive statistics, covariance (CV), ANOVA and for percentage compatibility computations. Data on Uyo samples showed the lowest values while Ibiono showed median values; heavy metals showed highest spatial variability at CV ≥ 35%. Significant difference (P < 0.1) was observed in temporal variability between 2013 and 1993 values (20 years interval). The suggested causes were: spread of pollution by construction ruts, stagnant polluted water, and vehicular traffic commuting urban-rural areas, open uncontrolled dumping of various solid/organic wastes, insanitary handling of water and wastewater and low standard of borehole drilling in rural-urban fringe adjusting to suburbanization. Compatibility with NSDWQ varied per parameter and location but were generally within acceptable standards; however, iron, lead and cadmium in the contiguous LGAs were higher in concentrations and should be periodically monitored. Bacterial counts, especially coliform count exceeded standard MPN and called for sanitation intensification.

Keywords:
groundwater quality spatial variability urban diffusedpollution urban – rural fringe percentage compatibility drinking water standards

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Essien, O. E. and Akpan, P. E., “Impact of urban expansion on arable land use at rural-urban fringe in Uyo Municipality”, International Journal ofDevelopment Studies (In Press), 2013.
 
[2]  Hossain, M. Z., “Rural-urban migration in Bangladesh: A micro level study”, In Brazil IUSSP Conference on Internal Migration, August 20-24, 2001.
 
[3]  Suresh, R., Soil and water conservation engineering, Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi. 11006, 143-144, 2006.
 
[4]  Encyclopedia Britanica, “Eluviations” Encyclopeadia Britannica, 2012.
 
[5]  Lindsay, B. D., Katz, B.G., Brendt, M. A., Andis, A.F. and Sach, K. A.,“Relation between Sinkholes density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifer in the Eastern United States”, Environmental Earth Science, 60 (5), 1073-1090, 2006.
 
[6]  Essien, O. E. and Sangodoyin, A. Y., “Analysis of storm dynamics using ECCRARO Model in Enyong Creek and Ikpa river catchments in South-East Nigeria”, Journal of Applied Science & Engineering and Technology, 6 (1), 39-47, 2006.
 
[7]  Birch, G. F., and Scollen, A., “Heavy metals in road dust, gully parkland soils in a highly urbanized sub catchment of Port Jackson,”Australian Journal of Soil Research, 41(7), 1329-1342, November, 2013.
 
[8]  Iwegbu, C., Nwajei, G. E. and Equavoen, G. E., “Impact of land-use patterns on chemical properties of trace elements in soils of rural, semi-urban and urban zones of the Niger Delta, Nigeria”, Soil and Sedimentcontamination: an International Journal, Taylor and Francis group, 21(1),19-20, 2012.
 
[9]  Chin, C. Q., “Urban diffuse pollution-a new challenge to the rapid urbanization in China”, Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 26(7), 1053-1156, 2006.
 
[10]  Arora, K. R., Irrigation, Water power and water resources engineering (in SI Unit), Standard Publishers Distribution, Delhi 110006, 133-166, 2007.
 
[11]  Hydrotec, Survey of Fadama sites in Akwa Ibom State, AKADEP, Uyo, Nigeria, 1994.
 
[12]  APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.
 
[13]  N. Ruiz, “Impact of urbanization on metals in soils. A case study from Leicester”, 2009. Available: http://www.imperial.ac.uk/workspace/environmentalpolicy/public/Ruiz%2009%20Executive%20sum [Accessed10August, 2013.
 
[14]  SON, Nigerian Standard for drinking water quality, Nigerian Industrial Standard, NIS 504, Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos, 2007.
 
[15]  Essien, Obot E. and Sangodoyin A. Y., “Correlation of groundwater quality with usage requirements and geological formations in South-Eastern”, In Processing of Nigerian Society of Agricultural Engineers (NSAE), Vol. 19, 1997, 135-142, 1997.
 
[16]  Singh, M., Muller, G., Singh, I. B., “Heavy metals in freshly deposited stream sediments of rivers associated with urbanization of the Ganges plain, India”. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 14 (1-4): 35-54, 2002.
 
[17]  Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), Report of three year (1991-1993) implementation of Rural Water supply Programme, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Governor’s Office, Uyo Nigeria, 1993.
 
[18]  Sawyer, C. N., McCarthy, P. L. and Parkin, G. F., Chemistry for environmental engineering and science, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2006.
 
[19]  Martin, S., Griswold, W., “Human health effects of heavy metals”, Environmental Science and Technology briefs for citizens, Centre for Hazardous Substance Research, Issue 15, March, 2009.
 
[20]  Suresh, R., Land and Water Management Principles. Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi 110006, 2008, 338-373.
 
[21]  Essien, O. E., “Spatial and seasonal variations of heavy metal load in Uyo urban drainage stream under PS and NPS pollution”, Nigerian J. for Technological Development (NJTD), 9(2), 82-95, 2012.Inc., New York, 125-150, 1990.
 
[22]  Lund, L. J., Page, A. L. and Nelson, C. O., “Movement of heavy metals below sewage disposal ponds,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 5: 330-334, 1976.
 
[23]  Dowdy, R. H. and Volk, V. V., “Movement of heavy metals in soils” In Chemical Mobility and Reactivity in Soil Systems. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1983.
 
[24]  Sayadi, M. H., Sayyed, M. R. G. and Shabani, N., “Quantification of heavy metal pollutants in surface soils of Chitgar industrial area, Teheran, Iran with spatial references to their spatial pattern” Pollution Research, 28: 345-351, 2009.
 
[25]  Romic, M. and Romic, D., “Heavy metals distribution in agricultural topsoil in urban area,” Environmental Geology, 43: 795-805, 2009.
 
[26]  Hseu, Z. Y., “Evaluating Heavy Metal contents in nine composts using four digestion methods”, Bioresource Technology 95, 53-59, 2004.
 
[27]  Muller, R. and Lloyd, R., Sub lethal and chronic effects of pollutants on groundwater, FAO New Books, Oxford, UK, 1-371, 1994.
 
[28]  Bohlke, J. K., “Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination”, Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 153-179, 2002.
 
[29]  Brodie, M. and Mitchell, R., “Nutrients in African Tropical Rivers: changes with agricultural development and implications for receiving environments”, The Environmentalist, 23, 709-715, 2005.
 
[30]  Novaris, H., Peraira, M. R., Patiniia, C. and Da Silva, E. F. “Contamination factors of the groundwater of the Ervedosa region (NE Portugal)”, e-Terra, 5 (7), 1-18, 2008.