American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2022, 10(1), 17-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-10-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Groundwater Potential Recharge Zone Mapping for the Wolf River Watershed, Tennessee

Khairul Hasan1, 2, Sondipon Paul2, , Khayrun Nahar Mitu1 and Fuad Bin Nasir3

1Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Memphis, TN, USA

3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

Pub. Date: April 28, 2022

Cite this paper:
Khairul Hasan, Sondipon Paul, Khayrun Nahar Mitu and Fuad Bin Nasir. Groundwater Potential Recharge Zone Mapping for the Wolf River Watershed, Tennessee. American Journal of Water Resources. 2022; 10(1):17-23. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-10-1-3


The article presents groundwater potential recharge zone analysis in the Wolf River watershed applying the Geographic Information System (GIS) technique. Six thematic layers: elevation, slope, drainage density, rainfall, land cover, and soil type are prepared and integrated for the spatial analysis. The analysis applies the multi-criteria-based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to obtain each layer's weight. The thematic layers with the assigned weightage are overlain in a weighted overlay analysis to develop the study area's potential groundwater recharge zone map. Potential recharge zones are classified into four categories: very low, low, medium, and high. The result shows that the medium zone occupies a large portion of the watershed's central and southern regions. The study also reveals that the high and low zones cover a minimal watershed area. The findings can help policymakers make informed decisions for sustainable management of groundwater resources of the study area.

Geographical Information System (GIS) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Potential Groundwater Recharge Zone Mapping Watershed Delineation Weighted Overlay.

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Alley, W.M., Reilly, T.E., Franke, O.L., 1999. Sustainability of groundwater resources. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
[2]  Hall, N.D. and Regalia, J., 2016. Interstate Groundwater Law Revisited: Mississippi v. Tennessee. Virginia Environmental Law Journal, 34(2), pp.152-203.
[3]  Ahmadi, H., Kaya, O. A., Babadagi, E., Savas, T., & Pekkan, E., 2020. GIS-Based Groundwater Potentiality Mapping Using AHP and F.R. Models in Central Antalya, Turkey. In Environmental Sciences Proceedings (Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 11). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.
[4]  Paul, S., Hasan, K., 2021. The impact of the proposed rubber dam facilitated surface water irrigation on adjacent groundwater at Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh. Appl Water Sci 11, 36 (2021).
[5]  Hasan, K., Paul, S., Chy, T.J., Antipova, A., 2021. Analysis of groundwater table variability and trend using ordinary kriging: the case study of Sylhet, Bangladesh. Appl Water Sci. 11, 120 (2021).
[6]  Al-Djazouli, M.O., Elmorabiti, K., Rahimi, A., Amellah, O., Fadil, O.A.M., 2020. Delineating of groundwater potential zones based on remote sensing, GIS and analytical hierarchical process: a case of Waddai, eastern Chad. GeoJournal. 1-14.
[7]  Magesh, N.S., Chandrasekar, N., Soundranayagam, J.P., 2012. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Geosci. Front. 3, 189-196.
[8]  Saranya, T., Saravanan, S., 2020. Groundwater potential zone mapping using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and GIS for Kancheepuram District, Tamilnadu, India. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 6, 1105-1122.
[9]  Yeh, H.-F., Cheng, Y.-S., Lin, H.-I., Lee, C.-H., 2016. Mapping groundwater recharge potential zone using a GIS approach in Hualian River, Taiwan. Sustain. Environ. Res. 26, 33-43.
[10]  Arulbalaji, P., Padmalal, D., Sreelash, K., 2019. GIS and AHP Techniques Based Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones: a case study from Southern Western Ghats, India. Sci. Rep. 9, 2082.
[11]  Benjmel, K., Amraoui, F., Boutaleb, S., Ouchchen, M., Tahiri, A., Touab, A., 2020. Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Crystalline Terrain Using Remote Sensing, GIS Techniques, and Multicriteria Data Analysis (Case of the Ighrem Region, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Water 12, 471.
[12]  Kaliraj, S., Chandrasekar, N., & Magesh, N. S., 2014. Identification of potential groundwater recharge zones in Vaigai upper basin, Tamil Nadu, using GIS-based analytical hierarchical process (AHP) technique. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(4), 1385-1401.
[13]  Kesler, D. H. (2004). Influence of a Lentic Area on Condition Indices of Corbicula flumineain the Wolf River, Tennessee. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 19(3), 445-453.
[14]  Adeyeye, O.A., Ikpokonte, E.A., Arabi, S.A., 2019. GIS-based groundwater potential mapping within Dengi area, North Central Nigeria. Egypt. J. Remote Sens. Space Sci. 22, 175-181.
[15]  Saaty, T.L., 1990. Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world. RWS publications.
[16]  Magesh, N.S., Chandrasekar, N., Soundranayagam, J.P., 2011. Morphometric evaluation of Papanasam and Manimuthar watersheds, parts of Western Ghats, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu India: A GIS approach. Environ. Earth Sci. 64, 373-381.
[17]  Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., & Abdallah, C., 2006. Use of remote sensing and GIS to determine recharge potential zones: the case of Occidental Lebanon. Hydrogeology Journal, 14(4), 433-443.
[18]  Jin, S., Homer, C., Yang, L., Danielson, P., Dewitz, J., Li, C., Zhu, Z., Xian, G., Howard, D., 2019. Overall methodology design for the United States national land cover database 2016 products. Remote Sens. 11, 2971.