American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajwr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2022, 10(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-10-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Parasites as Veritable Indicators of Faecal Escherichia coli Contamination of Surface Waters: A Case Study of Adada River, Enugu State, Nigeria

E.C. Amadi1, 2, , E.A. Eze3, Nwangwu C.C1, Ani P.N.4, Okpara T.C.5 and Chukwuma S.T.1

1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Park lane Campus, GRA, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria. ORCHID: 0000-0001-5652-9251

2Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria;Department of Microbiology, Caritas University, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

4Department of Microbiology, Caritas University, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

5Department of Internal Medicine Enugu State University Teaching Hospital

Pub. Date: January 13, 2022

Cite this paper:
E.C. Amadi, E.A. Eze, Nwangwu C.C, Ani P.N., Okpara T.C. and Chukwuma S.T.. Evaluation of Parasites as Veritable Indicators of Faecal Escherichia coli Contamination of Surface Waters: A Case Study of Adada River, Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. 2022; 10(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-10-1-1

Abstract

There is need for alternate quick-search of pathogens’ distribution in community water sources, instead of the cumbersome “Escherichia coli detection.” Parasites were evaluated as possible indicators of faecal contamination of surface waters, using Adada River in Nigeria as case-study. Seventeen parasites of medical importance (in dry season) and 13 (rainy season) isolated from the river (at measured geographical coordinates) were analyzed for their quality and quantity and connected with the distribution of the river’s isolated Escherichia coli, using Pearson’s Correlation Analysis. The 17 parasites consist of: Taenia sp, E. coli, E. histolytica, B coli, Cercaria/miracidia, S mansoni, S haematobium, A. lumbricoides, Giardia sp, hookworm, T. trichiura, S. stercoralis, I. butschlii, C. mesnili, E. nana, B. hominis and H. diminuta; while the 13 consist of: Taenia sp,. E. coli, E. histolytica, B. coli, S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides, Giardia sp, hookworm, T. trichiura, S. stercoralis, I. butschlii, C. mesnili and E. vermicularis. Biological index, using the Pearson’s Correlation Analysis, revealed significant correlation relationship of Escherichia coli with the presence of I butschlii in the dry season), non in rainy season. From the evaluation, potential index analysis indicated that I. butschlii could serve as markers for Escherichia coli faecal bacteria indicator, and possible index for future monitoring of the potability of such surface waters. The methodology is straight forward, cost effective, less cumbersome than other currently existing approaches.

Keywords:
pearson correlation analysis Enterococcus water analysis Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Iron total hardness

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