American Journal of Water Resources
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American Journal of Water Resources. 2021, 9(1), 23-31
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-9-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Using Principal Component Analysis to Assess Water Quality from the Landing Stages in Coastal Region

Antoine Tamsa Arfao1, , Mamert Fils Onana2, Ernest Koji3, Luciane Marlyse Moungang1, Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti1, Joel Brice Tchuimaleu Emadjeu1, Siméon Tchakonté1, Awawou Manouore Njoya1, Télesphore Sime-Ngando4 and et Nola Moise1

1Hydrobiology and Environment Laboratory, University of Yaounde 1, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon

2Department of Aquatic Ecosystems Management, Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon

3Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon

4Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome & Environnement, Université Clermont Auvergne, BP 80026, 63171 Aubière Cedex, France

Pub. Date: April 02, 2021

Cite this paper:
Antoine Tamsa Arfao, Mamert Fils Onana, Ernest Koji, Luciane Marlyse Moungang, Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti, Joel Brice Tchuimaleu Emadjeu, Siméon Tchakonté, Awawou Manouore Njoya, Télesphore Sime-Ngando and et Nola Moise. Using Principal Component Analysis to Assess Water Quality from the Landing Stages in Coastal Region. American Journal of Water Resources. 2021; 9(1):23-31. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-9-1-4


Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water on banks of Wouri. At each sampling station, the physicochemical analysis focused on Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved CO2, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, nitrates, ammonium ions, orthophosphates, color, salinity, and turbidity. The bacteriological analysis consisted of the isolation of heterotrophic aerobe bacteria (HAB), faecal bacteria, and some pathogenic bacteria. PCA showed that two factorial axes F1 (49.48%) and F2 (25.18%) explained 74.67% of the total inertia. pH, Suspended Solids, electrical conductivity and color are significantly and positively correlated with each other and also significantly and positively correlated with the F1 axis. HAB, faecal bacteria, Shigellae, dissolved CO2 and salinity are significantly and positively correlated with each other and, are also significantly and negatively correlated with the F1 axis and with the previous group of variables. The F1 axis discriminates in the negative coordinates of the Youpwe 1 and 2 stations, characterized by a high content of orthophosphates, ammonium ions, and low oxygenation. There is also a high concentration of bacteria such as HAB, faecal coliforms and Salmonella. The calculation of FC/FS ratio reflects exclusively contamination of animal origin in all the sampled stations.

water bacteriological analysis physicochemical analysis principal component analysis

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