American Journal of Water Resources
ISSN (Print): 2333-4797 ISSN (Online): 2333-4819 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Water Resources. 2020, 8(5), 211-217
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-8-5-1
Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Drinking Water Quality from Various Sources in a Peri Urban Area on the North Eastern flank of Mount Cameroon

Usongo P. Ajonina1, , Guy E. Ediamam1, Gordon N. Ajonina2, 3 and Enjongaya Z. Atiekum1

1Department of Geography, P.O Box 63, University of Buea, Cameroony

2Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Douala (Yabassi), Cameroon

3Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society (CWCS), Coastal Forests and Mangrove, Programme BP 54 Mouanko, Littoral Region, Cameroon

Pub. Date: September 29, 2020

Cite this paper:
Usongo P. Ajonina, Guy E. Ediamam, Gordon N. Ajonina and Enjongaya Z. Atiekum. Evaluating Drinking Water Quality from Various Sources in a Peri Urban Area on the North Eastern flank of Mount Cameroon. American Journal of Water Resources. 2020; 8(5):211-217. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-5-1


The present study aimed to calculate water quality index (WQI) through the analysis of eleven chemical parameters on the basis of the Weighted Arithmetic Index on six water sources; rain, well, stream, tap, river and spring during the dry and rainy seasons in order to assess their suitability for drinking purpose in Mbonge Marumba a peri urban area on the north eastern flank of Mount Cameroon. Water samples were collected from the field and analyzed at the nearby Ekona Research Laboratory. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if there were any significant differences of water parameters between the water sources and season. The WHO standard was used to compare the values of the water parameters tested through the percentage variance. Results revealed that Ca2+ is the most abundant cation followed by Mg2+, K+, Na+ and NH4+. The relative abundance of anions (mg/l) in different water sources were as follows: HCO3‾ > Cl‾ > NO3‾ > SO42‾ >H PO42‾. These results reflect an influence of natural processes mainly from rock weathering. A wide variation (>-80%) between the actual values and the WHO standard was observed for most parameters with the exception of pH with a variance of -32% to -34%. HCO3- showed a higher value than that of the WHO standard. It ranged from 4.9 in rain water to 66.9 in tap water while the WHO standard permissible limit is 0.1. The WQI ranged from 3,137 for rain water, during the rainy season to 42,981 for tap water during the dry season. These index values revealed that the status of the various water sources in terms of ions and cations composition in the area are unsuitable for drinking.

anions Cations Drinking water quality chemical parameters Water Quality Index (WQI)

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1997). Chemical Analysis Manual for Food and Water, 5th ed.
[2]  World Health Organization (2006). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality Vol.1. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[3]  Thliza, L.A., Khan, A.U., Dangora, D.B. and Yahaya, A. (2015). Study of some bacterial load of some brands of sachet water sold in Ahmadu Bello University (Main Campus), Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of current Science 14:91-97.
[4]  Hughes J. M and Koplan J. P (2005). Saving lives through global safe water. J. Emerg. Infec. Dis. 11(10): 1636-1637.
[5]  World Health Organization (2004). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality: Supporting Documentation to Guidelines, (3rd Ed.). World Health Organization 2, 552.
[6]  World Health Organization and UNICEF (2006). Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the decade.1, 20-26. FAO ROME.
[7]  Calamari, D. and Naeve, H. (Eds.) (1994). Review of pollution in the African aquatic environment. CIFA Technical Paper No. 25, FAO, Rome, pp 118.
[8]  Aina, E. O. A. and Adedipe, N.O. (Eds.) (1996). Water Quality Monitoring and environmental Status in Nigeria. FEPA Monograph 6, FEPA, Abuja, Nigeria, pp 239.
[9]  Chukwura E.I. (2001). Aquatic Microbiology. Octoba Press, Onitsha, Nigeria. 67-77.
[10]  Mafany G. T. & Fantong W. Y. (2006). Groundwater quality in Cameroon and its vulnerability to pollution. Taylor and Francis, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 47-55.
[11]  Almeida, C. A., Quintar, S., Gonzalez, P., and Mallea, M. A. (2007). Influence of urbanization and tourist activities on the water quality of the Potrero de los Funes River (San Luis-Argentina). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 133, 459-465.
[12]  Horton, R.R., (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Wat. Pollut.Control.37: 300-06.
[13]  Asadi, S.S.; Vuppala, P.; Anji, R.M. (2007). Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 4, 45-52.
[14]  Buchanan, S. and Triantafilis, J. (2009). Mapping water table depth using geophysical and environmental variables. Groundwater, 47, 80.
[15]  American Public Health Association (APHA). (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20 th ed. Washington, DC.
[16]  World Health Organization (WHO) (1984). Guidelines for Drinking Quality. Drinking Water Quality Control in Small Community Supplies, WHO, Geneva. Switzerland 3, 121-130.
[17]  Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I. Deininger R. A. and O’Connor, M. F. (1972). Water Quality Index-Crashing, the Psychological Barrier, Proc. 6th Annual Conference, Advances in Water Pollution Research, pp 787-794.
[18]  Tripathy J. K. and Sahu, K. C. (2005). Seasonal hydrochemistry of groundwater in the barrier-spit system of Chilika lagoon, Journal of Environmental Hydrology, Vol. 12 (7), pp 1-9.
[19]  Chatterjee, C. and Raziuddin, M. (2002). Determination of water quality index of a degraded river in Asanol Industrial area, Raniganj, Burdwan, West Bengal, Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology, 1 (2), 2002, pp 181-189.
[20]  Tanyileke G. Z., Kusakabe M., Evans W. C. (1996). Chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Fluids along the CVL, Cameroon. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 22. (4): 433-441.
[21]  Vitousek, P. M. (1977). The regulation of element concentrations in mountain streams in the northeastern United States Phys. Geog., 7, 1-24.
[22]  Okoya A. and Elufowoju M. A. (2020). Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources, 2020, Vol. 8, No. 4, 164-172.
[23]  Chapman D. (1992). Water Quality Assessment: A Guide to the Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.
[24]  Kannan and Sabu. (2009). Quality of Groundwater in the Shallow Aquifers of a Paddy Dominated Agricultural River Basin, Kerala, India; World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 52: 475-493.
[25]  Yidana S.M., Ophori D. and Banoeng-Yakubo. (2008). A multivariate statistical analysis of surface water chemistry data. The Ankobra basin, Ghana; Journal of Environmental Management; 86: 80-87.
[26]  World Health Organization and UNICEF (2006). Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the decade.1, 20-26. FAO ROME.
[27]  Wotchoko P; Tita M.A; Kouankap N.G.D; Alice; Nkemnji J.Z; Guedjeo C.S; Kamgang K.V. (2016). Physico-Chemical Analysis of Water Quality of Springs in Baia-Muyuka, North-Eastern Flank of Mount Cameroon (South West Region, Cameroon Volcanic Line). American Journal of Water Resources, Vol. 4, No. 5, 111-120.
[28]  Roberts G. and Marsh T. (1987). The effects of agricultural practices on the nitrate concentrations in the surface water domestic supply sources of Western Europe, International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, 164, 365-380.
[29]  Engome R. Wotany, Samuel N. Ayonghe, Wilson Y., Fantong Mengnjo, J. Wirmvem and Takeshi Ohba. (2013). Hydrogeochemical and Anthropogenic Influence on the Quality ofWater Sources in the Rio Del Rey Basin, South Western, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea. Vol.7 (12), pp. 1053-1069.
[30]  Edet A., Nganje T.N., Ukpong A.L., Ekwere A.S. (2011). Groundwater chemistry and quality of Nigeria: A status review. Afr. J. Environ. Sci Technol. 5 (13): 1152-1169.
[31]  Fonge B. A., Egbe E.A., Fongod A.N., Tening A.S., Achu R.M., Yinda G.S., Mvondo Z. (2012). Effects of Land Use on Macrophyte Communities and Water Quality in the Ndop Wetland Plain, Cameroon. J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 12: 41-49.
[32]  Magha A., Tita M. A., Kouankap G. D. N., Wotchoko P., Ayuk M. T., Kamgang Kabeyene V. (2015). Physico-Chemical and bacteriological characterization of spring and well water in Bamenda III (NW Region, Cameroon) 4(3): 163-173.
[33]  Body-Clenz, (2013). BodyClenz Health Centre. Medical Journal of England, 82, 34-35.